Canadian Parliament Gives Ovation to Waffen-SS Veteran
1938 Munich Agreement and Historical Fraud
Canadian Parliament Gives Ovation to Waffen-SS Veteran
In Canada and abroad, the truth about what took place in the past during and after World War II is well documented and known. Despite this, attempts to commit historical fraud abound, as in the attempt to present a Ukrainian Nazi war criminal as a "veteran of World War II who fought for Ukrainian independence against the Russians … a Ukrainian hero, a Canadian hero, and we thank him for all his service.” This is how the Speaker of the House of Commons put it when he called for the House of Commons to honour a Ukrainian Nazi war criminal who received refuge in Canada after World War II -- and in the Speaker's own riding to boot. It is the run of the mill attempts to rewrite history by making claims that Nazis and Nazi collaborators were freedom fighters at the time of World War II, in order to justify supporting the very same elements in the present in the U.S./NATO war in Ukraine under the same banner of high ideals claiming they are fighting "Russian aggression." To add insult to injury, the Speaker, who has since resigned, claimed to be ignorant of who this man is and no doubt all the others like him who are protected and put into positions of power in Canada. The shameless performance of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Liberal House Leader Karina Gould who blamed the Speaker and claimed ignorance about the invitation merely underscores that Canadians cannot entrust this ruling class with their safety on any front. The silence of the Deputy Prime Minister who champions the cause of these so-called Ukrainian freedom fighters also speaks volumes.
These elements think they can now whitewash their infamy by eliminating the entire episode from the record of the House of Commons. The record would show every member of that session of the House of Commons which welcomed Zelensky giving this Nazi, not one but two standing ovations.
Historical fraud is committed when what took place in the past is misrepresented to justify the crimes being committed today. This is what was on full display when the Canadian Parliament gave an avowed Nazi war criminal a standing ovation. It is the stock in trade of both Liberal and Conservative governments in Canada and the NDP and now other parties eager to curry favour with narrow private interests which are making billions off the U.S./NATO proxy war in Ukraine.
The apology of the Speaker of the House on the grounds that it was a mistake because he had not done his due diligence to find out the history of this war criminal to whom the entire House of Commons gave a standing ovation will not wash. To introduce him as a veteran who fought "Russian aggression" in World War II betrays an outlook inimical to the cause for which Canadians sacrificed so many lives in World War II. The outlook espoused is precisely what Canada's official falsification of history is based on and not a single member of the House of Commons who participated in the standing ovation is without blame, no matter how much they jump from the frying pan into the fire by trying to distance themselves from what they did.
The "I did not know" excuse is never acceptable, especially not from those who claim to represent Canadians. They are happy to be well remunerated to carry out what they call public service which now apparently includes condoning committing historical fraud.
The Speaker, having been thrown under the bus by his colleagues in the Parliament finally had no choice but to resign but the Trudeau government in its entirely must be held to account, beginning with the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Minister and the Foreign and Defence Ministers and Leader of the House, all of whom shout the battle cries of the Ukrainian Nazis Slava Ukraini every chance they get. So too the Opposition parties must answer for their alleged ignorance. Their unforgivable insult to all Canadians and peoples of the world who gave their lives to fight for peace, freedom and democracy is not a matter of ignorance. Anyone who claims ignorance on such a fundamental matter or applauds the present-day Nazis is not fit to govern.
The robbery of the Canadian state treasury to fund the U.S./NATO proxy war and the corrupt Zelensky government is also not a matter of ignorance about who these Ukrainian Nazis are and the crimes they committed against Jews, the Polish people, the Roma, Soviet soldiers, partisans and communists. They will yet have to answer for their blithe attempts to turn truth on its head and play the innocent card.
The Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist) is publishing a TML Supplement with an index of articles from the archives of the Hardial Bains Resource Centre and the Party press about the falsifications of history then and now so that the youth can settle scores with attempts to commit historical fraud today. The aim is to arm the youth as well as peace-loving working people and society as a whole with an outlook which opens a path to progress. In this way, the working people cannot remain powerless to set their own course for peace and democracy. They will no longer be duped into taking stands pro and con what the virulent anti-communists and Nazi collaborators are saying and doing.
Settling scores with the old conscience of society is part of providing the polity with an outlook and modern definitions they need to create forms of governance which uphold rights by virtue of being human. Praising the Nazi monsters who committed atrocities in the past and joining their descendants to commit atrocities in the present shows how far into the abyss these forces in the government, official opposition, academia and media who wield positions of power and privilege have descended. There is nothing redeeming about them or their apologies or excuses. Canadians are justifiably outraged.
Amidst Ukrainian President Zelensky's visit to Canada, on September 22 the House of Commons and Zelensky himself honoured Yaroslav Hunka, a 98-year-old Ukrainian-Canadian Nazi who was a member of Hitler's SS during the Second World War, with a standing ovation. Particularly striking is the fact that not a single party leader or MP raised their voice against this shameful display. After the Speaker of the House Anthony Rota introduced him as a "Ukrainian hero" who "fought against Russian aggressors in the Second World War," every MP present rose to their feet and applauded. Most enthusiastic was Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland, who is on record being proud of her Nazi grandfather.
According to Hunka's own blog posts written between 2010 and 2011, he volunteered to join the Waffen-SS in the Ternopil region of Ukraine in 1943 after obtaining training in Nazi Germany. Of note is the fact that Ternopil was a centre of Nazi extermination campaigns – prewar approximately 20,000 Jewish people lived in the city, and by the end of the Nazi occupation only a few hundred survived. Those days, Hunka recalls in his posts, were the best days of his life. This is clearly an individual who is guilty of crimes against humanity and has no regrets about his past.
Canada played a heinous postwar role by bringing in thousands of former SS members like Hunka, exempting them from being tried for their crimes against the peoples. At the time, this was part of a larger Anglo-American scheme to save as much as they could of the remnants of Nazi-fascism, to reorganize fascist elements into barriers against the triumph of a truly democratic order where peace could prevail and amity among nations could be established.
The most criminal aspect is that all this is presented as being in our name, as part of Canadians "always standing with Ukraine." In reality, this has nothing to do with the aspirations of the people of Canada or Quebec and everything to do with the interests of the rulers, who are part of the U.S./NATO proxy war in Ukraine. Their conceptions are so narrow that they no longer acknowledge politics as such, and do not oppose Nazi-fascist politics -- their only criteria for support is that you must be in favour of nation-wrecking in Ukraine and a vain attempt to destroy Russia. The message is that as long as you meet those conditions, even if you are an SS member, you will find support in Canada.
Tens of millions of heroes across the globe died fighting in the world anti-fascist war against the Hitlerites. More than a million Canadians fought that scourge, and today there are many millions of their direct descendants living in this country. Their heroic sacrifice is not recognized by the Parliament. On the contrary, on September 22, the Canadian government spat on the graves of the fallen and dishonoured the living.
Canadians, Quebeckers and all progressive humanity reject with contempt the assertions that Nazis played a positive role historically as long as they "opposed Russia." In the world anti-fascist war, Canadians fought alongside Russians, Ukrainians and the other Soviet peoples represented in the heroic Red Army, in their common goal of a liberated humanity. SS members like Hunka do not represent either the Canadian or Ukrainian people. Those with a conscience have long declared Nazism to be the greatest enemy of the peoples, and any attempt to rehabilitate or glorify their actions finds the greatest reaction of disgust. The peoples honour those who defeated Nazi-fascism, not those who fought for it.
Not In Our Name!
The following are selected statements about the ovations given to
Yaroslav Hunka in the Parliament, from some of those countries and
peoples who suffered at the hands of the Waffen-SS Galizien Division of
Ukrainian Nazis of which Hunka was a member, or other similar Nazi
collaborators who were given safe haven in Canada.
Russian Foreign Ministry
The public honouring of 98-year-old Bandera supporter Yaroslav Hunka, a member of the 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician), at the Canadian Parliament during Vladimir Zelensky's visit, is the best possible way to characterise the regime of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, who has embraced unbridled Russophobia. It was the most cynical abuse of the memory of Nazism victims. The Ukrainian collaborators who served Nazis evaded accountability for the genocide on the occupied territories of the Soviet Union and Europe, to be given shelter in Canada after the Great Patriotic War.
As much as certain members of the Canadian Parliament try to apologise retrospectively after receiving a storm of indignation from the Jewish community and even from Ottawa's ally, Poland, the fact remains that the ultra-liberal ideology propagated in Canada and permeated with hatred for Russia, its culture, religious and traditional values, essentially has the same roots as Nazism. It is no coincidence that there are monuments to the leaders of Ukrainian nationalism in the country and the overwhelming majority of the Nazis who received asylum like Yaroslav Hunka are living out their days in safety, honoured and cared for (in particular, by Deputy Prime Minister Chrystia Freeland) as "fighters against Russian Communism."
The hostile actions of the Canadian government, which has been trying to surpass the United States in its anti-Russia sanction rage by constantly extending [sanctions against Russia] with more names of politicians, cultural figures and their family members, as well as entire education institutions, will certainly not be left without a response. We will not tolerate the fact that Canadian liberals are playing with Nazism and will take the necessary steps in the context of the Russia-Canada relations that are going through a crisis on an epochal scale through [...] Ottawa's fault.
We expect that healthy forces in Canadian society will speak
out against the Nazification of history and daily life
encouraged by the country's officials, along with aggressive
(September 25, 2023)
Statement of Belarus Foreign Ministry
Belarus, which lost every third citizen in the Second World War, is outraged and deeply offended by the footage of honouring a veteran of the SS division "Galicia" in the House of Commons of the Canadian Parliament.
We are convinced that such a cynical attitude to the memory of thousands of innocent victims of Nazism is not an accidental incident, as the organizers of this show are now trying to portray it.
It is a kind of quintessence of the long-standing consistent policy of the authorities of Canada and a number of countries of the collective West to cover up and whitewash Nazi criminals and to deliberately condone attempts to rewrite history.
With this in mind it is not surprising that all requests of Minsk to the Canadian authorities for assistance in the investigation of the criminal case on the fact of genocide of the population of Belarus during the Great Patriotic War and the post-war period remain unanswered.
Suffice it to recall another Nazi criminal of Ukrainian origin, the infamous executioner of Khatyn, Vladimir Katryuk, who lived in Canada for more than 60 years and did not receive the punishment he deserved because the Canadian authorities refused to extradite him.
We demand that international and public organizations, associations and foundations commemorating the victims of the Second World War give a proper legal and moral assessment of this incident.
We await an official apology from the Canadian authorities.
(September 25, 2023)
Remarks by Polish Ambassador to Canada
Poland's ambassador to Canada, Witold Dzielski, told CTV on September 25 that the Waffen-SS Galizien Division contributed to the deaths of six million Poles during World War II, half of whom were Jewish. He said of the person who received an ovation in the House of Commons on September 22 as a hero of Ukraine:
"[Yaroslav Hunka] is a person who participated in an organization that was targeting Poles, was committing mass murders of Poles, not only the military personnel but also civilians. For me, such people should not be present in public life and probably should be prosecuted."
Talking to CBC that same day, Dzielski says House Speaker Anthony Rota should expand on his apology for inviting a Ukrainian who served in a Nazi unit to the House of Commons. In addition to apologizing to the Jewish community, he says, Rota should also recognize the atrocities this unit committed against ethnic Poles. When Rota resigned as Speaker on September 26, he referred to his actions as having "caused pain to individuals and communities, including to the Jewish community in Canada and around the world in addition to Nazi survivors in Poland among other nations."
Poland's Education Minister Przemyslaw Czarnek has called for Hunka's extradition. In an interview with Global News on September 26, Ambassador Dzielski clarified, "I don't think we're beginning an extradition process. There was a request of a Polish minister to the Institute of National Remembrance to consider that option." He explained that the Institute of National Remembrance is responsible for safeguarding records of Polish history and suffering, such as that during the Second World War, in which nearly six million Poles were killed during that time, about a quarter of the country's population.
"This institution in particular is very important in Poland and its role is to preserve the memory and to investigate crimes against the Polish nation, historically speaking," Dzielski explained.
"So, I'm sure this request will be considered at the Institute of National Remembrance, and possible some steps will follow. But at this point, it's the first steps of the request for the institute to get involved in the process."
Dzielski said he would have to check with the institute if they have a file on Hunka specifically, but that the unit multiple Jewish groups have said he served with -- 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS -- is well-known in Poland for its brutality.
This is why he said Poland is looking for a broader apology for the recognition.
"The apologies, which happened in the public sphere, address in particular Jewish communities, which is very appropriate and obviously needed in the context of the whole situation, but they did not address the Polish communities," Dzielski said.
"One needs to remember that this particular military group, that was brought to light unfortunately, acted against, in a brutal manner, murdered Poles – ethnic Poles, ethnic Jews. Both groups were of Polish citizenship, so these were basically Poles."
He added that the omission of Polish people from these apologies is historically wrong.
Statement of Simon Wiesenthal Center
The Simon Wiesenthal Center is calling on Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to explicitly condemn the Galicia Division, an organization founded by the Nazis and part of the Waffen SS, that swore their allegiance to Hitler during World War II.
This follows the hailing of a 98-year-old "hero" by the Canadian parliament, who was a member of the Galicia Division. The Simon Wiesenthal Center's Canadian affiliate – Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center for Holocaust Studies – has already called for the resignation of Anthony Rota as Speaker of the House of Commons after the former member of the Waffen SS, notorious for its involvement in Holocaust atrocities, was celebrated on the floor of the House of Commons.
"Nobody put a gun to their heads to serve in that division," said Rabbi Abraham Cooper, Associate Dean and Director of Global Social Action for the Simon Wiesenthal Center. "Yesterday was Yom Kippur, the holiest day in Judaism, where the Bible teaches us not to hold children responsible for the crimes of their parents.
However, we will never forget and never forgive. Over one million Jews where mass murdered in that region by the Nazis and their willing collaborators. This takes us back to post World War II when the British shipped 5,000 Ukrainians in Canada. Many identified as anti-communists but the British never informed the Canadian government that among them where individuals who were implicated in crimes against humanity and war crimes," Cooper added.
Simon Wiesenthal, the heroic Nazi hunter, refused to go back to Canada after his first visit as he said that there was no political will to deal with the issues of Nazi War Criminals by the Canadian government.
"Some ask who won the Cold War – the former Nazi war criminals," Cooper concluded.
(September 25, 2023)
Debacle Raises Serious Questions about Zelensky and Ukraine
My two uncles who died courageously fighting the Nazis would turn over in their graves if they knew that those who fought for the Nazis, as well as their modern-day descendants and promoters, have been "honoured" in the Canadian Parliament. A standing ovation, led by Prime Minister Trudeau and Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky, was given for a Nazi who fought with the 14th Waffen-SS Galician division, a vicious military gang ultimately commanded by Heinrich Himmler.
The Waffen-SS was declared to be a criminal organization at the Nuremberg Trials, yet at least 2,000 members were "legally" brought to Canada after WW2. Incredibly, one of its members was appointed Chancellor of the University of Alberta, served as President of the Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta, and was given the Order of Canada. Other Waffen-SS members took other key positions.
Do we really understand who we are funding in Ukraine and to what purpose? Do we really grasp the critical danger of promoting such vile provocateurs as Zelensky and his ilk? Perhaps one clue to make us sit up and think is that it is crystal clear that they are fully backed by U.S. imperialism and NATO, the world's two largest terrorist organizations who have a long and bloody history of waging aggressive war against all who resist them.
An Educator in Edmonton
An Error Maybe, But Not an Aberration
CBC News reports that if the opposition parties force a vote on a motion in the House of Commons calling for the Speaker Anthony Rota to step down for leading the entire house in honouring a known Nazi, "several influential members of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau's cabinet told Radio-Canada they can't imagine a scenario where Liberal MPs would vote to save Rota's skin."
It is becoming clear that the rulers of Canada are desperate to distance themselves from such an open correlation between Canada's present warmongering path and the worst crimes ever committed against humanity and world peace. It is certainly problematic for Ukrainian president Zelensky in his desperate attempt to get more funding and more weapons for the U.S./NATO proxy war against Russia, especially at this juncture where the peoples of Europe and the U.S. are demanding an end to the funding of this war and where the very future of NATO as a warmongering alliance is put into question.
Right away the entire propaganda apparatus of the Canadian ruling circles went into action to create as much confusion as possible so that no correlation be made between Nazism and the assault against peace today in the form of the proxy war waged by U.S./NATO in their effort to impose a regime change in Russia, without any qualms at the horrible cost for the people of Ukraine. Two University of Ottawa professors were invited to comment on Radio-Canada to shamelessly try to justify the "mistake" of honouring Hunka as a veteran of the 14th Waffen-SS Division Galicia. Dominique Arel, chair of Ukrainian studies at the University of Ottawa, told Radio-Canada that the division Hunka was part of "had attracted thousands of Ukrainian volunteers, many joining with hopes they could achieve Ukrainian independence." He and the other guest hinted that this was understandable since "the Soviet Union had committed horrendous massacres in Galicia" and "don't forget the famine Stalin forced on the people of Ukraine." Arel said the argument that the Ukrainian nationalists committed crimes against the people of Poland and of Ukraine "is not very developed," but he seems to have no qualm in invoking the great lie of the Ukrainian famine which has been fully debunked and for which arguments have been fully "developed" over the last 70 years.
Honouring a known Nazi was a "mistake" only as inasmuch as getting caught is concerned, but it is not a departure from the entire warmongering outlook of Canada's ruling class and institutions. Many are wondering how come no-one in the House of Commons applauding Hunka was even bothered by the introduction given to him by the House Speaker who presented him as someone who "fought Russian aggressors" during World War II. Wasn't the Soviet Union our ally during World War II?
In a post on Twitter Prime Minister Justin Trudeau said it was important to "push back against Russian propaganda and disinformation" and said that Russia could stand to benefit from the scandal surrounding the standing ovation given to the Ukrainian Nazi.
The shameful and feeble complaints coming out of the ruling
circles and media that "this event may play in the hands of
Russian propagandists" is indicative of a bad conscience. It is
an entire period of historical mystification that is put into
question as the peoples are finding their ways to assert
themselves as the makers of history.
A reader in Gatineau
This Isn't "Embarrassing," Mr. Trudeau, It's a Shameless Affront
In a video clip about the standing ovation given to a Nazi collaborator by the House of Commons, Trudeau said, "It's extremely upsetting that this happened. The Speaker has acknowledged his mistake and has apologized. This is something that is deeply embarrassing to the Parliament of Canada and by extension to all Canadians, I think particularly of Jewish MPs and all members of the Jewish community across the country who are commemorating Yom Kippur today." He went on to say that it was very important to continue to fight against Russian propaganda and disinformation and to continue to unequivocally support Ukraine and stand in solidarity with Ukraine in the illegal war Russia is waging against it.
An "expert" speaking on monopoly media said that the Speaker of the House's "mistake" was due to the fact that he was historically misinformed in presenting the Nazi as a hero who fought against the Russians in the Second World War, because anyone who knows the facts of the history of that period knows that those who fought against the Russians in Ukraine – that is, the Soviets, as the expert pointed out – was on the side of the Nazis. What he didn't explain was why everyone stood up and applauded when the Speaker made the announcement, including the Jewish MPs Trudeau refers to. Does this mean that everyone involved is "uninformed" about the history of the Second World War and the anti-fascist struggle of the peoples? If so, everyone needs to explain themselves, apologize to all Canadians and Quebeckers, and commit to knowing their history, which is soaked in the blood of Canadians, Quebeckers and First Nations who made the ultimate sacrifice to defeat the Nazi beast.
It is not a matter, as Trudeau says, of the incident being "embarrassing for all Canadians," it's an abhorrent affront to Canadians, an affront he shamefully tries to sweep under the rug by talking about "Russian propaganda," which has absolutely nothing to do with this incident.
In fact, Trudeau's comments are unfathomably illogical and cowardly. If he pleaded ignorance, at least he might be able to get away with it. But in doing so, he's simply confessing unambiguously which side he's on.
A reader in Montreal
Deputy Prime Minister Freeland's Expertise on Full Display
Such is the extent to which the rewriting of history has gone that
everyone in the House of Commons on September 22 are supposed to be
exonerated by the Speaker falling on his sword for his misdeed while the
likes of Trudeau and his key ministers as well as their other guest,
Zelensky, get off scot-free. They had nothing to do with it allegedly.
It is noteworthy that not only has Chrystia Freeland been silent in all this, but she for one, with her degrees from Harvard and Oxford in Russian history and Slavic Studies, and having lived in Russia for several years, etc. cannot claim ignorance of who it was that fought the Russians in WWII when she wildly applauded the Nazi with a big smile on her face. Nor can Zelensky, a Ukrainian of Jewish heritage raised under the Soviet system who is said to have lost family members to the Nazi onslaught when he immediately raised a clenched fist to the Ukrainian called a "hero" for fighting Russia in WWII. They stand exposed, as is the mission they are so passionate about today, but that is not to be discussed. Even the fervent NATO member Poland is incensed over what happened.
The whole anti-communist edifice in Canada, with the memorial to the "victims of Communism," but also the whole post-war history of importing Nazis, the refusal to sign on to the resolution denouncing the glorification of Nazism presented every year to the United Nations Gneral Assembly should be seen to be in total disrepute, with the incident in Parliament rooted in all of that. The attempt to simply expunge the record of what took place on September 22 in Parliament and throwing the Speaker under the bus will never be able to wash away what it represents, including for Canada's role in the criminal U.S./NATO proxy war it is part of in Ukraine today.
A reader in Windsor
Take Down the Monuments!
Now is the time to put an end to the glorification of Nazis and their collaborators. Efforts by the parties in the parliament and members of parliament who are declaring their "mistake" will not be accepted by Canadians. Now is the time to demand that the monuments be torn down, and the role of the state, various institutions and organizations whose goal has been to promote a false narrative, including straight-forward lying about the history of Ukraine, so as to hide the reality of the current U.S. proxy war which is bringing enormous harm and destruction to the people of Ukraine.
It is 37 years since the Deschenes Commission closed the book on the war crimes committed by members of the 14th Division, Waffen SS Galizien, refusing the release their names and suppressing the work of Dr. Alti Rodal, which has to this date only been partially released in greatly redacted form. The glorification of Ukrainian collaborators, including members of the Waffen SS Galizien, greatly intensified in the wake of this travesty. Canadians should demand that all the documents be released in unredacted form to end this fraud that the members of the Waffen SS did not commit war crimes.
Canada has two monuments to the Waffen SS Galizien, one in Oakville and the other in Edmonton. In Edmonton, the monument at St. Michael's cemetery, operated by the Eparchy of Edmonton of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, is dedicated to "Fighters for the Freedom of Ukraine." Among the veteran organizations mentioned on the plaque is "1st UD UNA," which is an abbreviation for the 1st Ukrainian Division of the Ukrainian National Army, i.e. the Waffen SS Galizien.
A local Edmonton journalist is awaiting trial on charges that he "defaced" this monument by painting the words "Nazi monument" and "14th Waffen SS," a charge which was made after he reported that he had received an anonymous tip about the monuments. Outrageously, the incidents were investigated by the hate unit of the Edmonton Police Services and journalist Duncan Kinney was arrested by members of the "hate crimes unit" and charged with mischief. Edmontonians have called for the removal of these monuments for many years.
The monument to Roman Shukhevych stands outside the Ukrainian Youth Unity Centre. It was under Shukhevych's leadership that the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) forces committed the most heinous war crimes, killing at least 50,000 Polish citizens of Volynia/Wolyn. These monuments must be torn down! All charges must be dropped!
The Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies (CIUS) located at the University of Alberta, was founded in 1976, initially funded by the Alberta government, and has been a major source of disinformation, historical revisionism, and falsification of history about Ukraine. As well as awarding research grants, fellowships, and scholarships, it acts as a publisher, and is responsible for the internet "Encyclopedia of Ukraine". A significant source of funding has been endowments to memorialize members of the Waffen SS.
The CIUS has received significant funding in memory of former members of the Waffen SS and other criminal organizations. They include the following and together amounted to some $750,000 in 2011.
The Volodymyr and Daria Kubijovy Memorial Endowment Fund was established in November 1986 with a bequest from the estate of Professor Volodymyr Kubijovy and matched two-to-one by the Government of Alberta. The fund supports CIUS's encyclopedia projects, and now totals some $440,000 dollars.
Kubijovy edited the Encyclopedia of Ukraine under the auspices of the CIUS. A member of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, and leader of the "Ukrainian Central Committee", Kubijovy was the most senior Ukrainian collaborator with Nazi Germany, working closely with Hans Frank, head of the General Government in Nazi-occupied Poland, and co-initiated the establishment of the 14th Waffen DD Galizien. A virulent anti-semite, and supporter of Hitler, he actively participated in organizing the deportation of mainly young workers as slave labourers to Germany, advocated ethnic cleansing to create a Ukraine without Jews and Poles.
The Roman and Halia Kolisnyk Endowment Fund, and Levko and Marika Babij Memorial Endowment Fund were both established in 2011, in the names and to honor the memory of two of the most prominent Ukrainian Waffen-SS veterans in Canada.* There are thematic conditions: the latter is earmarked for "the study of twentieth-century Ukrainian history, especially Ukraine in World War II." Recently, the field of endowments and donations in the name of Waffen-SS veterans has expanded with two more such endowments.
Yaroslav Hunka is also listed as a donor.
Historian Per Ander Rudling comments on the so-called "Encyclopedia." "After the war, safely in the West, Kubijovy led the Shevchenko Scientific Society, edited the Encyclopedia of Ukraine under the auspices of the CIUS. His encyclopedia contains no entry for "Holocaust," while the entry on Kubijovy himself describes his wartime past as him having "revealed his exceptional ability as an organizer and statesman." The entry on anti-Semitism tells us that "there has never ... been a Ukrainian anti-Semitic organization or political party" and that "it is difficult to identify major instances of anti-Semitism, in the specific sense of prejudice and not simply hostility that have a demonstratively Ukrainian character." Contorted as this logic may be, it is not far-fetched to suspect that it had something to do with his own actions during the war. That the University of Alberta is connected with such trash is shameful, and even more so when serious inquiry like that carried out by Dr. Dougal Macdonald into the "Holodomor" is met with threats and attempts at character assassination.
Another major player in the creation of CIUS and the "Encyclopedia" was Peter Savaryn, also a former member of the SS Galizien. He served as Chancellor of the University of Alberta, a member of its Senate and Board of Governors, was President of the Alberta Progressive Conservative Association, and received the Order of Canada in 1987.
A reader in Edmonton
1. They Defended Ukraine': The 14. Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (Galizische Nr. 1) Revisited, Per Anders Rudling
Formed in 1943 and made up mostly of ethnic Ukrainians, the Waffen-SS Galicia Division was a Wehrmacht-subordinated fighting formation recruited from among fascist radicals, and was responsible for the mass murder of anti-fascist and communist Ukrainians, Red Army troops, anti-fascist partisans, and Polish, Jewish, Russian and Slovak civilians.
Between 1943 and its surrender to the Western allies in May 1945, 14th SS Volunteer Division Galicia rampaged through Eastern Europe. It was used for "police actions" against Polish and Soviet partisans in western Ukraine and eastern Poland, deployed to wipe out hundreds of civilians at a time in the Polish settlements like Huta Pieniacka, Podkamien, Chodaczkowo Wielkie, Prehoryle, Smogligow and Borow, and thrown into meat grinders against the Red Army (where it took heavy losses approaching 75 percent during brutal fighting at Brody, Lvov region in July 1944).
The remnants of the division were evacuated and deployed in Slovakia in the late summer of 1944 to put down the Slovak National Uprising, and then sent to suppress partisan operations in Yugoslavia in January 1945. In March 1945, the formation retreated to Austria, taking heavy losses while trying to hold back Soviet forces in and around Graz during the desperate closing months of the war. Ukrainian fascist forces later incorporated into the division also took part in the suppression of the Warsaw Uprising between August and September of 1944, although the division itself did not take part.
A previous example of Canada's role in giving shelter to and
covering up the role of Nazi collaborators came to light in
2017, when independent media outlet Consortium News was attacked
by Canadian authorities after revealing that Chrystia Freeland,
the senior Trudeau cabinet member then serving as Canada's
Minister of Foreign Affairs, had attempted to cover up her
grandfather Mykhailo Khomiak's past as an editor of a Nazi
newspaper in occupied Poland during WWII, a newspaper that was
printed and published from facilities stolen from Krakow's
Polish-language Jewish newspaper Nowy Dziennik, no
Canadian media later followed up on the allegations, confirming
the information, and revealing that Freeland not only knew of
her grandfather's dark past, but helped edit an academic article
in the Journal of Ukrainian Studies by her uncle,
John-Paul Himka, professor emeritus at the University of
Alberta, in a bid to whitewash the Nazi propagandist's
activities. When the news of her grandfather's true past leaked
out, the Canadian government immediately characterized it as a
"Russian disinformation" campaign aimed at "destabiliz[ing]
Western democracies," with Freeland claiming her grandparents
fled the war in 1939 as "political exiles with a responsibility
to keep alive the idea of an independent Ukraine."
After the escalation of the Ukrainian crisis in early 2022,
Freeland, now Deputy Prime Minister, got into more trouble after
tweeting (and after public outrage deleting) a photo of herself
holding a banner sporting the colors of the notorious fascist
militant formation known as the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
(Ukrainian acronym UPA), along with the UPA's slogan "Slava
Ukraini" (lit. "Glory to Ukraine").
Created in the 1930s as the paramilitary wing of the fascist
Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the UPA was
responsible for the killings of hundreds of hundreds of thousands civilians
in Nazi-occupied western Ukraine during World War II, among them
ethnic Poles, Jews, Russians, anti-fascist Ukrainians, and
later, as the Red Army advanced, Soviet soldiers.
The formations, some of whose volunteers ultimately ended up joining Waffen SS Galicia, remained active until well after the war's end. With the help of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services, precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), militants waged a campaign of terror across western Ukraine until the early 1950s, killing some 25,000 Soviet troops, intelligence personnel and policemen, plus over 32,000 civilians, including many government administrators. Like SS Galicia vets, some UPA collaborators ended up in Canada and other Western countries after the war.
After World War II broke out, the Ukrainian Canadian Congress was formed to encourage Ukrainian Canadians to enlist in the Armed Forces to fight Hitler, with over 35,000 joining, constituting the second-largest group of non-British, non-French origin Canadian citizens to do so.
(With files from themaple.com, Consortium News, agencies.)
The Ukrainian National Federation (UNF) was founded in Canada in 1932. It was organized as an arm of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists Bandera faction (OUN-B) that operated in Western Ukraine, a territory at that time divided between Poland and Romania. The UNF had no interest in defending the interests of the workers and farmers of the Ukrainian community, who were already organized in the United Labour Farmer Temple Association (ULFTA) and other organizations. Rather it was an arm of an organization which was organized under the protection of Germany and fascist Italy and which was soon to swear an oath of loyalty to Hitler. The activities of the UNF led to diplomatic protests from both Poland and the Soviet Union. Poland objected that an organization which was carrying out assassinations and sabotage was permitted to use Canada as a base. The Soviet Union registered its protest on the basis that the OUN was working for the dismemberment of the Soviet Union.
The anti-communist organizations had appealed to the Canadian state for years to smash the ULFTA and deport its members, so as to have unfettered sway in the Ukrainian community. The onset of World War II was the occasion for the state to directly intervene on behalf of the reactionary organizations, who immediately began to claim that they had the support of 80 per cent of the Ukrainian community.
In the initial list of organizations which would be declared illegal and their leaders arrested, the UNF was included, on the basis of it support for Nazi Germany and fascist Italy. Its leader, Wladimir Kossar was listed as a person to be arrested and interned at the outbreak of war. Kossar immigrated to Canada in 1927 and founded a division of the Ukrainian Military Organization in Canada, which evolved into the UNF in 1932. But instead of carrying through this recommendation, the government of Mackenzie King intervened to create a new organization, the Ukrainian Canadian Committee (UCC), in which all the anti-communist organizations were expected to unite. This new organization was apparently based on a quid-pro-quo arrangement – get behind the war effort, and in return the Canadian government would support their "cause" in post-war peace negotiations.
In November 1940, a handful of people from the Ukrainian community were brought together at the Ft. Garry Hotel in Winnipeg at the initiative of the King government and the UCC was born. Kossar was amongst those summoned to the Ft. Garry Hotel by the government to participate as a founding member in the creation of the state-organized Ukrainian Canadian Committee.
Having brought this committee into being, within months the Canadian government now found itself in an extremely compromised position. With the German invasion of the Soviet Union and the Soviet Union's entry into the war, the Canadian government was propping up an organization dedicated to the dismemberment of the Soviet Union as part of a new fascist order in Europe. In Western Ukraine the OUN which had the support of the Ukrainian National Federation had not only pledged its allegiance to Hitler but itself committed countless war crimes. However the government continued its support for the organization it had brought into being, while the leaders of the ULFTA remained in prison until 1942, when the pressure for their release had become too great to resist.
The UCC adopted new language, and overt support for a new fascist order in Europe was replaced with talk of "democracy" and "freedom," while the concept of "captive nations" – that is the nations within the Soviet Union – which were to be "freed" through German invasion was adopted holus-bolus from the Nazis.
Formation of the UCC, which in 1989 changed its name to Ukrainian Canadian Congress, was crucial to the post-war drive to shield war criminals through the propaganda campaign that "displaced persons" should not be returned to their countries as had been agreed at Yalta by Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin. This propaganda spoke of the forcible round-up and repatriation of Ukrainians and others as though the more than 5 million surviving prisoners of war and people forcibly taken to Germany as slave labourers, the majority Soviet or Polish citizens, would not want to return to their homeland and their families. The OUN leadership was of course desperate to escape trial and punishment for their war crimes. By 1947, a majority of those still in the displaced persons camps were from Western Ukraine. The OUN was very active inside the refugee camps, spreading fear, especially amongst the people from Western Ukraine, which had been under Romanian and Polish rule prior to the war and whose people had no experience with life in the Soviet Union. By mid-1946 the British unilaterally ceased the return of Soviet citizens. The propaganda about forcible repatriation was the cover under which those wanted for war crimes were not returned to Poland and the Soviet Union. This allowed the entire surviving Waffen-SS Galizien, the Ukrainian Division of the military SS, which was declared a criminal organization at Nuremberg, to be released from detention and brought to Britain, from where many immigrated to Canada. Kossar's biographer states that under his direction at the UNF many new citizens were brought to Canada after the Second World War.
Heinrich Himmler inspecting Waffen-SS Galicia Division, June 3,
TML is posting below an article by David Pugliese, published in Esprit du Corps, October 30, 2020, about a member of the Royal Canadian Air Force who covered up the crimes of Ukrainian Nazi collaborators to facilitate their entry into Canada.
In May both the Globe and Mail newspaper and CBC's As It Happens radio show carried laudatory reports about a Royal Canadian Air Force veteran and his efforts to bring Ukrainian refugees to Canada in the aftermath of the Second World War.
Flight Lt. Bohdan Panchuk was the man behind the Ukrainian Canadian Servicemen's Association (UCSA), which supported the cultural and social needs of Canadians of Ukrainian heritage serving overseas during the Second World War. Panchuk was also involved in the effort that saw as many as 30,000 Ukrainian refugees brought to Canada after the war.
The media focus on Panchuk, who died in 1987, came about because Ukrainian groups in Canada and the United Kingdom were honouring him and the UCSA by unveiling a stained glass window on the 75th anniversary of the Victory in Europe.
By all accounts Panchuk contributed to Canada's war effort and helping Ukrainian refugees from war-torn Europe.
But missing from the accolades in the Globe article and the CBC broadcast were the details about some of the Ukrainian "refugees" that Panchuk managed to convince the Canadian government to accept – 2,000 members of Adolf Hitler's Waffen-SS.
Panchuk was able to get members of the 14th Waffen-SS Division Galicia into Canada by lying about their past.
Members of the unit had surrendered to Allied forces and were being held in a camp in Italy. In an attempt to hide the SS connection, the unit had changed its name in the last few days of the war to the First Division Ukrainian National Army.
Panchuk was trying to get Canada to accept large numbers of soldiers from the unit but he had a major problem. The Canadian government would not accept as immigrants anyone who voluntarily served in the German military. Not only had the Ukrainians voluntarily served in Hitler's war machine but they had eagerly signed up for the Waffen-SS, which had been declared a criminal organization by the Nuremberg war crimes tribunal.
Those who served in the 14th Waffen-SS Division Galicia had taken an oath to Hitler and had received education in Nazi doctrine. Ukrainian officers had been trained at SS facilities in the Dachau concentration camp. In fact, some of the division's members have noted in their memoirs that concentration camp prisoners were required to remove their hats as a sign of respect for the Ukrainian SS. Unit members were given SS tattoos under their left arm indicating their blood group. Leadership of the division included some key figures who had been directly involved in the Holocaust.
As part of his efforts to have Canada accept the Ukrainian SS soldiers, Panchuk pushed a "positive narrative portraying the former Galicians as an anti-Soviet" German Army unit, noted Ukrainian historian Olesya Khromeychuk. She is the author of the book "Undetermined Ukrainians" which looks at the various narratives surrounding the 14th Waffen-SS Division Galicia.
No mention was made of the SS. Instead, the Ukrainians were portrayed by Panchuk as being victims, having been forced into the division against their will.
If Canadian immigration officials had actually probed deeply into the background of the 14th Waffen-SS division they would have found few victims in its ranks. "The volunteers (of the Galician Division) committed themselves to German victory, the New European Order, and to Adolf Hitler personally," explained Per Anders Rudling, a historian of Eastern European history and Associate Professor at the Department of History at Lund University, Sweden. The division not only fought the Polish Home Army but it took part in the crushing of the Slovak National Uprising and hunted down anti-Nazi partisans in Slovenia. There were also allegations of war crimes being committed by division members.
While some in the Canadian government didn't probe deeply into the background of the Ukrainian "refugees," British government bureaucrats knew who they were dealing with and were more than happy to dump the SS troops into Canada's lap. "The Division was an SS division and technically all of its officers and senior NCOs are liable for trial as war criminals," noted a report from Britain's Under-Secretary of State.
The British government also knew only cursory background checks had been conducted into the division members and their activities during the war. In 2005 the release of new documents from the British archives outlined the extent of the efforts in the late 1940s to pawn off members of 14th Waffen SS Division Galicia on to Canada. "What little we know of their war record is bad," wrote Beryl Hughes, who was handling the issue for Britain's Home Office. "We're still hoping to get rid of the less desirable Ukrainian PoWs either to Germany or Canada," Hughes added in another note in 1948.
Even Panchuk knew he was dealing with some unsavoury individuals but that didn't stop him in his deception. "We must defend the principle of the refugees and DPs (displaced persons) and victims of war, but, in actual fact, God forbid and protect us if some of these parasitic bandits ever get into Canada," he wrote to a colleague, John Karasevich.
Not everyone was fooled. Some members of the Canadian-Ukrainian community knew exactly who these "refugees" were and Panchuk's campaign faced strong opposition from the Association of United Ukrainians in Canada, Khromeychuk, the historian, revealed in her book. "It is clear that Mr. Panchuk and his Association either forgets the facts, that no Canadian could forget or feels that Canadians have already forgotten their sons who have fallen on the battlefields of Europe," the association wrote to Canadian immigration officials. "Ukrainian Division (Galicia) was part and parcel of the Hitler army. It was against them that our Canadian boys fought on the battlefields of Italy. Many a Canadian son remained over there, shot by the VERY ONES that Mr. Panchuk would wish your Department to bring to Canada."
But pressure from the nationalist Ukrainian lobby in Canada as well as the British government was too great and Panchuk was successful. As many as 2,000 members of 14th SS Division Galicia arrived in Canada in the 1950s and immediately started to whitewash and cover up their past.
The effectiveness of that whitewash was on display in 2020 -- neither the CBC nor the Globe and Mail appeared to have a clue about the SS connection to Panchuk's "refugees." The Globe article even has a photo of Panchuk visiting members of "Ukrainian Division Galicia" in 1947 as they awaited their release from the PoW camp in Italy. Globe journalists and photo editors were oblivious that those in the photo were members of the notorious 14th Waffen SS Division Galicia.
The International Military Tribunal, which presided over the war crimes trials at Nuremberg, expressly declared the Waffen-SS, the armed wing of the Nazi Party, to be a criminal organization. Until 1943 there were no non-German units of the Schutzstaffel (SS), a paramilitary police force; however, after losing the Battle of Stalingrad, an increasingly desperate Nazi Germany organized collaborators into Waffen SS Divisions (military divisions of the SS) in all the occupied countries.
The United Nations War Crimes Commission (UN WCC), which began its work in 1943, ascribed war criminal status to members of organizations it determined to be criminal organizations. Membership in or knowledge of the criminal nature of the organization determined war criminal status. Only those who had not voluntarily joined but had been forcibly conscripted were excluded from criminal status.
In October 1947, the Polish representative on the UN WCC put forward specific charges against the members of the Ukrainian SS Galizien and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA). These included the wanton devastation and destruction of property; complicity in deportation; systematic terrorism; putting hostages to death; complicity in mass murder.
The Short Statement of Facts transmitted by the Polish representative on the UN WCC states:
"The above listed persons took part in organizing -- according to the instructions issued by the Hitlerite authorities -- of UPA (Ukrainska Powstanesa Armia -- Ukrainian Insurgent Army) and SS -- Schutzstaffel -- Galizien, later called 'Halyczyn.' Both were used for deportation of civilian Polish population, for destruction of whole villages and for murdering their inhabitants.
"A letter dated November 3, 1947 to the Main Commission for the Investigation of War Crimes in Poland states that the investigation had been suspended by the United Nations War Crimes Commission in London until specific information is provided regarding the position, the level of authority, and the time span office of the following major figures accused of committing crimes against the Polish people in several regions..." The names of seven individuals follow.
Surviving members of the SS Division Galizien surrendered to the British and were interned in Rimini, Italy, an area controlled by Polish II Corps forces (part of the British army). Although they had changed their name to First Ukrainian Division of the Ukrainian National Army, their identity as an SS unit was well known. Through the intervention of the Vatican, the SS members were not deported to the Soviet Union as required under the Yalta Agreement. Instead their status was changed from prisoners of war to surrendered enemy personnel. In 1947 they were allowed to emigrate to Britain and later to Canada. Their names have never been released, but about 7,100 members of the SS Galizien emigrated to Britain.
According to Roman Serbyn, a "historian" of the "Holomodor" or "Ukrainian famine" whose family immigrated from Galicia in 1948, the Ukrainian Canadian Committee (UCC) was instrumental in the decision by the Canadian government in 1950 to allow immigration of members of the SS Galizien.
Serbyn tells the following story:
"After having surrendered on 8 May 1945 to the British near Radstadt, Austria, as 'Surrendered Enemy Personnel' (SEP), the 1st Ukrainian Division was interned in a SEP camp near Rimini, Italy. There the soldiers were subjected to screening by the British and Soviet authorities; both cleared the division of any war crimes. In spring 1947 the process of transferring the division to the United Kingdom began. The Ukrainian Canadian Committee and its affiliated organizations made efforts to encourage the Canadian government to allow individual members of the division to immigrate to Canada. On 31 May 1950 the federal cabinet sanctioned their immigration after carefully ascertaining that no war criminals were among those wishing to come to Canada. However, the Canadian Jewish Congress claimed to have evidence of the division's involvement in war crimes. The cabinet then asked the British Foreign Office and the RCMP for further clarification of the division's history and membership. By 25 September 1950, convinced of the correctness of its previous decision, the cabinet reaffirmed that former division members would be allowed to immigrate to Canada. Thus, after many screenings and much vetting of the division's history and membership, former division members came to Canada legally. For a detailed history of the division's immigration to Canada, see Myron Momryk, 'Ukrainian Displaced Persons and the Canadian Government, 1946-1952' (unpublished paper). See also Gordon B. Panchuk, Heroes of Their Day (Toronto, 1983). Documents relating to the division, its screening, and immigration to Canada can be found in part 3 of this volume."
Besides the admission of significant numbers of former members of the SS Galizien, the UCC was instrumental in the admission of leading members of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and the UPA. As will be discussed later, there is indisputable evidence of the war crimes, crimes against humanity and crimes against the peace committed by these three organizations and their closely-associated and overlapping memberships.
Part Two: Canadian Commission of Inquiry on War Crimes
The Deschenes Commission was established in February 1985 following allegations that the notorious Nazi Dr. Josef Mengele had applied to immigrate to Canada and that Canada was aware of his whereabouts. Its report was released in December 1986. The most important inquiry which such a commission needed to carry out was to establish how the Canadian government established who was a war criminal, and what stand it had taken towards suspected or confirmed war criminals. This would also involve determining what kind of investigations were made, the role of individuals and organizations such as the UCC in lobbying for admission of Nazi collaborators, and whether the government had acted in contempt of its own immigration law.
The Deschenes Commission did not conduct an inquiry into any of these important questions. Established at a turning point when no force could act in the old way, the Deschenes Commission showed the utter refusal of the ruling circles to provide modern definitions and their drive to reverse the verdict of the peoples that democracy could not permit the existence of fascism following the anti-fascist victory. Instead it used the occasion to further fascize the state.
1. Canadian Government in Contempt of Its Own Laws
The Commission summarized the state of immigration law as follows: "Until 1949, Canada had no criteria for rejecting as immigrants either Nazis or the German military. The prohibition then introduced included past members of the Nazi party, the SS (Schutz Staffel, an élite Nazi police force), Waffen SS (an equally heinous military version of the SS), the German Wehrmacht or regular armed forces, and collaborators. The Nazi prohibition was dropped in 1950. Non-Germans conscripted into the Waffen SS after 1942 were exempted in 1951 as were, in 1953, Waffen SS German nationals under the age of 18 at the time of conscription and ethnic Germans (the Volksdeutsche) conscripted under duress. The more general ban on veterans of all German military and SS units was relaxed in 1956 in cases of exceptional merit or where these veterans had close relatives in Canada. Specific exclusions were removed altogether in 1962. There remained only the loose catch-all exclusion of those 'implicated in the taking of life or engaged in activities connected with forced labour and concentration camps.'"
It should be noted that immigration did not resume until late in 1947, and there was little immigration from the "displaced persons" camps before restrictions were put in place in 1949.
According to the Commission, the members of the Waffen SS were ineligible to enter Canada in 1950 when they were permitted to immigrate. This fact did not trouble the Commission. It did not even directly address the legality of admitting members of the OUN/UPA or the Nazi police units except to remark in general terms: "No serious attempt ever seems to have been made to define 'collaborator' in the relatively brief period of time these exclusions were in effect and may have been enforced. For example, membership in the various Nazi-organized police auxiliaries which had been raised among local populations and used to keep order, to round up and sometimes to execute those suspected of being Jews, partisans, etc., was not a specific reason for exclusion."
These statements are indicative of the utter refusal of the Commission to inquire into any matter, for example the statement "in the relatively brief period of time these exclusions were in effect and may have been enforced." (Emphasis added.)
The Commission reported that "non-Germans conscripted into the Waffen SS after 1942 were declared exempt in 1951." The 1951 date coincides with the U.S. decision to lift the prohibited status from the OUN. What is not explained is how in 1950, one year before this decision was taken, all the surviving members of the Waffen SS Galizien were cleared for immigration to Canada. Even if the entire Division had been conscripted, which is irrefutably not the case, they would have been ineligible to enter Canada in 1950. In fact the organizations of veterans of the SS Galizien never for a moment claimed that they were forcibly conscripted. Far from it, they proudly boast that they were "fighting for their country" by joining the SS in order to fight alongside the German army to establish a new fascist order in Europe.
2. Anglo-American Imperialist Refusal to Prosecute War Criminals
Using the argument that the prosecution of lower level war criminals would serve no purpose, the report completely covers up the fact that the leaders of the collaborationist forces were helped to escape justice and brought to Canada, the U.S. and Britain.
As the 1985 Deschenes Commission reported, war crimes trials were shut down by the British and Americans as an integral part of Cold War policy. The Report quoted a 1948 memo from the British government explaining that it would no longer prosecute war criminals on the basis of the Cold War logic that "it was now necessary to dispose of the past as soon as possible."
The Parliamentary Summary states: "Faced with the reality of a new and dangerous enemy, the western powers became reluctant to pursue the remnants of the old. Their limited security resources were re-deployed to uncover suspected Soviet agents and Communists, rather than to identify and track down Nazi war criminals. In Canadian immigration policy, which was rapidly liberalized after the war, the restrictions against the entry of ex-enemy aliens were systematically relaxed."
In this way world reaction, led by U.S. imperialism, declared its refusal to accept the verdict of the world's people that a new definition of democracy had come into being which did not permit the existence of fascism. It was a negation of the demand for new arrangements on the international scale to establish that aggression was the supreme international crime and to bring to justice those guilty of war crimes, crimes against the peace and crimes against humanity.
Even this justification about not
pursuing "remnants of the old" is disinformation. The western
powers were doing nothing so passive as showing reluctance to
"pursue the remnants of the old." In fact, U.S. imperialism in
particular was actively pursuing and recruiting the "remnants of
the old" – that is, leading Nazis, collaborators from the
countries occupied by the Nazis and war criminals. But it was
not to bring them to justice, but to secretly arrange their
escape and safe passage to the U.S. and to incorporate them into
the state apparatus, especially the military and intelligence
The declaration that the members of the Waffen-SS Galizien were "cleared" of charges of being war criminals was part of this entire operation, and Canada was playing its role. Further, the UCC, which the Mackenzie King government had organized after it arrested the leaders of the Ukrainian Labour Farmer Temple Association and declared the association illegal, was actively organizing to bring these criminals to Canada.
From the time that the tide turned with the defeat of Germany at Stalingrad, the hopes of the imperialist powers that Nazi Germany would crush the Soviet Union and its nation-building project were dashed. The Cold War signalled not the emergence of a "new and dangerous enemy" but the same agenda to smash the new which had arisen with the Great October Revolution. U.S. imperialism now assumed the mantle of Nazi Germany, incorporating top Nazi scientists, military intelligence and others into its war machine, with the aim of accomplishing what Nazi Germany had been unable to do.
3. The "Screening" and "Clearing" of War Criminals
The Deschenes Commission did not inquire as to how the Canadian government determined that members of an organization deemed a criminal organization and therefore considered war criminals under the Nuremberg code had been "cleared" and declared not to be war criminals. It did not even acknowledge this difficulty, much less that the UCC which had been formed and nurtured through direct state intervention was actively demanding that war criminals from the OUN/UPA as well as the Waffen-SS Galizien be given preferential immigration status. Nor does it even make any cursory examination of how these forces who betrayed their own people and were responsible for countless civilian deaths and the deaths of anti-Nazi partisans had been "cleared" of war criminal status.
The claim that the SS Galizien was "screened" is so transparent that it hardly bears further comment. But it does reveal that in reality, "screening" was more concerned with identifying the partisan fighters against fascism and in particular the communists who had fought in their front ranks. In fact, not only did the Department of Immigration concern itself with barring communists and anti-fascist partisans, it consciously favoured the immigration of those who would act as a reactionary, anti-communist force within the working class and in Canadian society. Whether they had committed war crimes was not of concern to the government or the RCMP, for whom "national security" had always meant opposing communism and considering fascism, as it was in fact, another variant of capitalist society which therefore posed no threat to the monopolies and to capitalism and therefore no threat to "national security." War criminals had only to make the claim that they were really fighting communism – in other words to repeat the Nazi propaganda lock, stock and barrel and they became preferred immigrants.
Instead the Commission was used to create a further diversion and disinformation that if there were war criminals in Canada they had somehow slipped in as individuals. This also covered up the fact that these war criminals became acknowledged by the state as the "leaders" of the Ukrainian community.
The Deschenes Commission did not even consider it necessary to inquire as to the actions of the Canadian government in admitting people who were war criminals as defined by the Nuremberg Military Tribunal. Nor did it recognize the International Military Tribunal's determination that the SS was a criminal organization. It conducted no inquiry into Canada's participation in U.S. covert admission of known war criminals in preparation for war with the Soviet Union, even though by 1985 the true scope of U.S. harbouring of Nazis war criminals and absorbing them into its military and security apparatus was well known.
Instead it proceeded to collect names of individuals, finally putting forward a handful of names of a few old men for possible prosecution. The reactionary organizations which had their origin in the state-mandated and created UCC were carefully protected. Not only were they protected, they were declared to speak for all people of Ukrainian origin in Canada. Their outrageous claim that an attack on Nazi war criminals and their organizations was an attack on all people of Ukrainian nationality in Canada was used to manufacture a drama that the Commission had created discord between the Jewish and Ukrainian communities.
The parliamentary summary on the Commission stated: "The public hearings of the Commission had many highlights, but the most emotional aspect of the hearings and public debate outside the hearings seemed to pit the Canadian Jewish community against the Canadian East European and Baltic communities. The latter were afraid that the inquiry would become a witch hunt against their members who had revolted against Soviet tyranny during the war to the point of allying themselves with the Nazis."
In 1986, John Sopinka, then legal counsel for the UCC and later a Supreme Court Justice, went before the Commission to state: "It is my submission that there is no evidence that Ukrainians were in any general way the allies of Nazi Germany during World War II. Far from being the allies of Nazi Germany, Ukrainians found themselves in the unenviable position of having to battle both Nazi and Soviet repression."
In Sopinka's world, the fact that an estimated 4.5-5 million Ukrainians fought in the Red Army while many more fought as partisans is not recognized. Nor is the fact that Ukraine suffered proportionally the most deaths at the hands of the Nazis of any nation. The undeniable fact is that in the face of this heroic resistance, the Ukrainian Nationalist organizations of Western Ukraine swore allegiance to Hitler, and proclaimed that their "independence" required the establishment of a new fascist order in Europe. Out of this he conjures his fantasy world in which the issue is whether "Ukrainians" were the allies of Nazi Germany. Just who was slandering Ukrainians!
4. Conclusions of the Deschenes Commission
Once the narrow limits of considering whether war crimes charges could be laid against a few individuals had been established, the Commission proceeded with this task in a manner guaranteed to avoid exposure of the reactionary Ukrainian organizations which had done such yeoman's service for the bourgeoisie and of the despicable role of Anglo-American imperialism and the Canadian state. The Commission held no hearings and collected no evidence outside Canada, i.e. where the crimes had been committed. Justice Deschenes established very narrow conditions for collection of evidence in the Soviet Union, and at the same time announced that he would not take part in the hearing of evidence abroad. The Soviet authorities were given an ultimatum as to how evidence would be collected in the Soviet Union. When the Soviet authorities took their time deciding how to respond to this request. Deschenes soon concluded that the response from the Soviet Union had "taken too long" and there was "no time" for hearing evidence abroad. Given these arbitrary decisions, it was not hard to eliminate the vast majority of suspected war criminals from the list. Everyone whose case required evidence to be collected outside of Canada was removed. All the members of the SS Galizien were summarily removed and it was declared that they had been cleared of war crimes at the time of their entry.
And so it went. In the end one person was denaturalized and returned to Holland, one trial led to an acquittal, and the Crown dropped the charges on the rest of the cases it had begun.
In removing all the members of the SS Galizien, the Commission declared:
"The members of Galicia Division were individually screened for security purposes before admission to Canada. Charges of war crimes of Galicia Division have never been substantiated, either in 1950 when they were first preferred, or in 1984 when they were renewed, or before this Commission. Further, in the absence of evidence of participation or knowledge of specific war crimes, mere membership in the Galicia Division is insufficient to justify prosecution."
The assertion that war crimes charges were first registered in 1950 is false, as can be seen from the documentation above, which shows that charges were first received in October 23, 1947. This is an important error, since in 1947, after being held for two years as prisoners of war, the status of members of the SS Galizien was changed to displaced persons, paving the way for their immigration to Britain and Canada.
This absurd claim that all Canadians of Ukrainian origin were under attack was the cover used to shield both the Canadian state and the reactionary Ukrainian "leaders" it had sponsored and to maintain the claim that they "represented" all Ukrainians. The UCC was in a sense the Canadian government's first experiment in elite accommodation. It was cobbled together by government fiat while at the same time the cultural, political and defence organizations established by the workers and farmers through their own efforts were criminalized, their leaders jailed without charges, their halls and printing presses not only seized but turned over to the made-in-Ottawa UCC. It was this state-sponsored and organized UCC which had been so insistent that the members of the SS Galizien and OUN leaders be permitted to immigrate to Canada in the face of strong protest at the time from both Jewish and Ukrainian organizations and many other Canadians. With its brutal Cold War logic, the Commission could completely ignore the fact that in terms of loss of life, Ukraine suffered from Nazi aggression more than any nation in World War II and that its people fought German fascism heroically and at tremendous cost. Instead those who had collaborated with the Nazis and themselves carried out the most heinous crimes became the "victims" of a "witch hunt."
The investigation of Nazi war criminals in Canada was an exercise in disinformation. It was not just a cover-up of the crimes committed by the Nazi collaborators, including those from Ukraine, the Baltic states and Yugoslavia. It was equally so as regards the role of the Canadian state not only in shielding war criminals from just punishment but in making common cause with them. Instead of conducting an objective inquiry into the actions of the Canadian government and state agencies, as well as the nature of the crimes committed by the Ukrainian collaborators, the Commission made recommendations to further assault the rights of the people and the right to conscience. Ostensibly to prevent the granting of citizenship to war criminals and/or to make its revocation easier, the Commission recommended amendments to the Citizenship Act and the Immigration Act. To the same end it also recommended that immigrant applicants be asked specific questions about their past military, paramilitary, political and civilian activities, and that a written, signed record of the applicant's answers be kept during her or his lifetime. All of this was to set the precedent that Canadian citizenship could be revoked and citizens deported. Such measures had been carried out previously in Canada but previously they had required the invoking of the War Measures Act such as at the time of the Winnipeg General Strike.
1. "Short Statement of Facts, United Nations War Crimes Commission charges against German war criminals of Ukrainian origin registered number: 6697/P/U/1124, case number 1124 received October 23, 1947," from Genocide and Rescue in Wolyn: Recollections of the Ukrainian Nationalist Ethnic Cleansing Campaign Against the Poles During World War II, Tadeusz Piotrowski editor, McFarland & Company (2000)
2. Serbyn, Roman, Alleged War Criminals, the Canadian Media and the Ukrainian Community, www.ukemonde.com
Following the victory of the Great October Revolution, the counter-revolutionary forces in Western Ukraine began to play their role together with all the forces of imperialism and reaction against the new. Western Ukraine was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. From 1917 right up until the collapse of the Soviet Union, the "Ukrainian nationalists" based in Western Ukraine and later from their bases in Europe, Canada and the U.S. aggressively opposed the October Revolution and worked for the dismemberment of the Soviet Union. These forces occupied Kiev and declared themselves the "supreme government" or Rada of the Ukrainian National Republic. On December 25, 1917, the All-Ukrainian Congress of the Soviet Ukraine declared the Rada unlawful. After other short-lived attempts to establish its government in Galicia (Western Ukraine) Eastern Galicia was placed under Polish military control by the Supreme Council of the Four Powers. The Polish-Ukrainian war ensued in July 1919.
Civil War in the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian Rada
The Soviet Civil War was a war of the workers and peasants of the nations of the Soviet Union against foreign and domestic enemies of the Soviet power. Following the Great October Revolution, Great Britain, France, Japan and the U.S. landed troops in the Soviet Union without any declaration of war. Germany had signed a peace treaty with Russia, and while Germany did not openly take part in this intervention, it signed a "treaty" with the Ukrainian Rada, and brought German troops into Ukraine, Georgia and Azerbaijan. The defeat of Germany in 1918 began a new period in which the new Soviet Union could now wage military and political struggle openly for the liberation of Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Byelorussia, Ukraine and Transcaucasia from the yoke of Germany imperialism.
In 1920, Poland and the Ukrainian directorate under Simon Petliura signed a treaty of alliance against the Soviet Union. Petliura agreed to abandon the claim to Volynia/Wolyn and Eastern Galicia, and their combined forces attacked the Soviet Union. This was a disaster for the reactionary forces and the Polish army was pushed back to the gates of Warsaw by the Red Army.
Polish Gentry Attack Soviet Union; General Wrangel's Campaign; Failure of the Polish Plan; Rout of Wrangel; End of the Intervention
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), writing about the events of 1920, noted:
"Notwithstanding the defeat of Kolchak and Deniken, notwithstanding the fact that the Soviet Republic was steadily regaining its territory by clearing the Whites and the forces of intervention out of the Northern Territory, Turkestan, Siberia, and the Don region, the Ukraine, etc., notwithstanding the fact that the Entente states were obliged to call off the blockade of Russia, they still refused to reconcile themselves to the idea that the Soviet power had proved impregnable and had come out victorious. They therefore resolved to make one more attempt at intervention in Soviet Russia. This time they decided to utilize both Pilsudski, a bourgeois counter-revolutionary nationalist, the virtual head of the Polish state, and General Wrangel, who had rallied the remnants of Denikin's army in the Crimea and from there was threatening the Donetz Basin and the Ukraine.
"The Polish gentry, and Wrangel, as Lenin put it, were the two hands with which international imperialism attempted to strangle Soviet Russia.
"The plan of the Poles was to seize the Soviet Ukraine west of the Dnieper, to occupy Soviet Byelorussia, to restore the power of the Polish magnates in these regions, to extend the frontiers of the Polish state so that they stretched 'from sea to sea,' from Danzig to Odessa, and, in return for his aid, to help Wrangel smash the Red Army and restore the power of the landlords and capitalists in Soviet Russia.
"This plan was approved by the Entente states."
In April, Poland invaded Soviet Ukraine and seized Kiev. The Red Army counter-offensive led to the recapture of Kiev while the Polish warlords were driven out of Ukraine and Byelorussia. "The impetuous advance of the Red troops on the Southern Front brought them to the very gates of Lvov in Galicia, while the troops on the Western Front were nearing Warsaw. The Polish armies were on the verge of utter defeat."
Despite this, Trotsky's disastrous actions and orders led to withdrawal of the Soviet troops. While the Polish gentry were forced to abandon their claim to the Ukraine west of the Dnieper and to Byelorussia, by the Treaty of Riga signed on October 20, 1920 Poland retained Galicia and part of Byelorussia.
Ties between German intelligence and the Nazi Party and the Ukrainian "nationalists" began at this time, when Jary, Colonel Andrij Melnyk's second in command and later Berlin liaison for the OUN-Bandera faction, established links with leading Nazis including Alfred Rosenberg and Herman Göring. (Alfred Rosenberg, condemned at Nuremberg and hanged as a war criminal, was a major Nazi ideologue and served as Reich Minister for the Occupied Germany Territories. Göring, also condemned to death by hanging as a war criminal at Nuremberg, was commander of the Luftwaffe and Hitler's designated successor.)
In 1922, a terrorist campaign against Poland (the Second Republic) began. German military and intelligence trained members of the Ukrainian nationalists forces in espionage before their recruitment into the Polish army. Germany continued to offer military training, with an officers' school in Gdansk which graduated 110 active Ukrainian Military Organizataion (UVO) members.
Chronology of the Association of Ukrainian Nationalists
In 1928, fascist Ukrainian organizations which emerged in Italy, Czechoslovakia, Germany and Galicia coalesced. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) was founded in Vienna in 1929 from the merger of the UVO and several nationalist student associations – the Group of Ukrainian National Youth, the League of Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Union of Ukrainian Nationalist Youth. The UVO became the military arm of the OUN.
In the interwar period, the OUN carried out terrorist attacks including assassination of political personalities, state officials as well as its opponents within the Ukrainian population and acts of sabotage. Polish government and state officials and the attache at the Soviet consulate in Lvov were amongst the those assassinated. In 1934, its leading activists were arrested, including Stepan Bandera, the head of the Western Ukrainian Territorial Executive. His death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment and Bandera and other leaders remained in prison until the outbreak of World War II. They were released from prison when Germany invaded Poland in 1939.
Andrij Melnyk became the head of the OUN at its second congress convened in Rome under Mussolini's protection in 1939. In the period from 1939-1941, the factions of the OUN literally fought a war against each other for power and split into two factions -- the OUN-M headed by Andrij Melnyk and the OUN-B headed by Stepan Bandera. In 1940, both factions met with Hans Frank (a high-ranking Nazi sentenced to death at Nuremberg) and swore loyalty to the Third Reich.
The OUN under German Occupation
The OUN was active in the preparations for war against the Soviet Union, and was utilized by German military intelligence. Following the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, the Germans welcomed the OUN into the German-occupied General Government, and then began to recruit them as saboteurs, interpreters and police, organizing a training camp near Krakow. In the spring of 1941, the Wehrmacht also developed two Ukrainian battalions with the approval of the Banderites -- one code named "Nightingale" (Nachtigall) and the other code named "Roland."
The OUN organized the appropriate welcome of the German occupying forces in Lvov, who they hailed as "liberators" and carried out the first pogroms against Jews in Western Ukraine. The OUN leaders had grandiose ideas of becoming the rulers of a united Ukraine, which included Soviet Ukraine as well as Western Ukraine, and which they conceived as part of the new fascist order in Europe. To this end, the day following the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the OUN-Bandera declared an independent Ukrainian State in Lvov. The "independent Ukraine" of the OUN was to be an ethnically cleansed territory, where all non-Ukrainian inhabitants were to be either driven out or killed. One of the slogans they later gave was "Long live a greater independent Ukraine without Jews, Poles and Germans; Poles behind the River San, Germans to Berlin, and Jews to the gallows."
Nazi Germany had no interest in the independent Ukrainian state declared by the OUN. In this clash of two fascist agendas, the megalomania of the OUN leaders was not to be tolerated. For Nazi Germany, Western Ukraine was not only source of food, raw materials and slave labour, but would provide "lebensraum" (living space) in a "Greater Germany" and German settlers were sent to colonize Volynia/Wolyn.
All the factions of the OUN considered the victory of fascism to be necessary for the establishment of the Ukrainian state. However, while they continued to declare allegiance to Hitler, they maintained their demands for an independent Ukrainian state. For their impertinence, Stepan Bandera and other OUN leaders were placed under house arrest and later sent to Zellenbau, a section of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp where political personalities including the Chancellor of Austria were imprisoned. More of their leaders were imprisoned and their forces came under direct German command while the leaders were held in reserve until they might again be needed. That time came after Stalingrad when the tide of the war turned. During the period in which the OUN leaders were in prison, the OUN forces were organized into police units and late military formations under direct German command. At no time during their imprisonment did the OUN leaders direct their followers to cease their service to Nazi Germany. Mykola Lebed, who evaded arrest, became the de facto leader of the OUN-B, and in 1942 he formed the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA).
War Crimes of the OUN
In July-August 1941 alone, the OUN participated in the murder
of over 13,000 Jews in Volynia/Wolyn in northwestern Ukraine,
then a Polish province, alone. The genocide against the Jews in
Volynia/Wolyn was an SS operation, but the main force carrying
it out consisted of Ukrainian police in the service of the
Nazis. An estimated 150,000 Jews were killed in 1942. In the
end, more than 98 percent of the Jewish citizens of
The OUN served as a source of concentration camp guards, ghetto guards and after 1943 as members of the auxiliaries of the SS. Trawniki, an SS labour camp, was established as a training centre for concentration camp guards. They were also the major guard forces at other camps such as Sobibor, Treblinka, Belzec, Trawniki and others.
In 1941 the OUN reached an agreement with the Wehrmacht to organize Ukrainian legions and two OUN-B regiments, Nachtigal and Roland are organized; they were later dissolved and joined the ranks of the UPA. Both the OUN-B and OUN-M formed and trained groups whose task was to follow on the heels of the Germany army in the invasion of the Soviet Union. They were the collaborators whose role was to set up local administrations, militias and the auxiliary police, organize OUN cells, attempt to recruit new members and "combat Jews and communists." Bandera's group was also permitted to engage in political activities in Western Ukraine. Germany also recruited the Ukrainian nationalists into its armed forces and paramilitary organizations.
The UPA which was formed in 1943 and the closely associated SS unit, the SS Galizien, whose formation was endorsed by the OUN-M, played a thoroughly insignificant role as a regular army. The OUN/UPA and the SS Galizien each participated in one recorded battle with the Red Army and on both occasions their forces were decimated. According to Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, there were about 25,000 Ukrainians in the Waffen SS Galizien in 1944. They engaged the Red Army only once at Brody in Western Ukraine from July 13-22, 1944. In this battle, the combined German- Ukrainian force was decimated. Those surviving were reorganized and fresh volunteers added, while others deserted and joined the UPA.
The SS Galizien and the UPA were very closely intertwined. Wasyl Veryha, a former member and the historian of the SS Galizien, who lived in Toronto until his death in 2008 stated: "While recalling the fairly well known facts that the personnel trained in the [SS Galizien] division had become the backbone of the UPA, it should be mentioned that the UPA command also sent groups of its people to the division to receive proper military training."
The main role played by the UPA was not engaging the Red Army, but the murder and genocide of civilian populations. This included acts designed to kill or remove the entire Polish and Jewish population from Western Ukraine, as well as the murder of Ukrainians who had joined the partisans to fight the Nazis, and attacks on partisans from Soviet Ukraine. Testimony of survivors and documents from many sources, including the German and Polish archives, Holocaust archival sources and the OUN's own records identify that among the reasons for the killing of people of Ukrainian nationality by the OUN/UPA were membership or former membership in the Communist Party, joining the partisans, refusal to participate in massacres, refusal to join the OUN/UPA, rendering assistance to Poles, "intermarriage" and refusal to kill their Polish wives and children.
Numerous documents from the Wehrmacht and the Abwehr reporting the meetings conducted with representatives of the UPA note that Germany repeatedly demanded that the OUN give full loyalty in respect to German interests. The OUN was very significant in the genocide against the Jewish population, in fighting the partisans, carrying out collective punishment against entire villages who aided the partisans, etc. But the wholesale genocide of Polish villagers and destruction of their villages, who were needed as forced labour or to provide their quota of agricultural products, was considered counterproductive. This was a sticking point for the UPA, who objected to limitations on their program of ethnic cleansing and genocide.
The Advance of the Soviet Forces
Raids by Soviet partisans against the Nazi forces in Western Ukraine began as early as 1942. After Stalingrad, more Ukrainian Soviet partisans moved into Volynia/Wolyn. The week following the February 2, 1943 victory at Stalingrad, the Ukrainian Partisan Movement ordered new operations in Volynia/Wolyn. The tide was turning. It was at this crucial moment, when the tremendous sacrifice of the Soviet people had put the German army in full retreat, that the OUN-B announced the formation of the UPA.
The forces under OUN influence or direction had been the backbone of the German occupation. The entire civilian administration in Rivne, the headquarters of the Ukraine Reich Commission, numbered only 252 people and the Ukrainians led by the OUN had played a crucial role in administration and subjugation of Western Ukraine on behalf of Nazi Germany.
When German defeat appeared inevitable, like rats leaving a sinking ship the OUN-B gave the call to desert the German police units and join the newly formed UPA. It was at this time that it engaged in a few skirmishes with retreating German units to seize weapons, actions which it later would claim prove that the OUN had "fought both the Nazis and the Red Army." The OUN was desperate to stop Ukrainians from joining ranks with the Soviet partisans. The OUN had achieved its dominant position over the Ukrainian population in Western Ukraine not through popular support but as the collaborators of the occupiers. It had resorted to terror against the Ukrainian population and its command over the people was in no way secure. It may also have engaged in some of these minor skirmishes in order to try to convince the people that it was "fighting the Nazis." The OUN/UPA played a double game, sometimes issuing anti-German propaganda to try and gain credibility amongst the peasants while continuing to pledge their allegiance to Hitler and the new fascist order in Europe.
The UPA now proceeded to use the experience it had gained in
organizing mass murder and unleashed it against the Polish
population. OUN leader Mykola Lebed proposed the removal of all
non-Ukrainians from the entire territory of Volynia/Wolyn. In
late April 1943, a summit of the OUN replaced Lebed with Roman
Shukhevych as leader and a central command was established for
all the UPA forces under Shukhevych, with about 40,000 men. The
assault on the Polish citizens of Volynia/Wolyn soon began. The
OUN/UPA forces killed at least 50,000, forcing the rest to flee.
UPA soldiers would surround colonies and villages, burning the
houses, shooting or forcing back inside to be burned alive those
who tried to escape.
Polish victims of a massacre committed by the Ukrainian
Insurgent Army in the village of Lipniki, Wolyn (Volhynia),
Partisan units waged a heroic fight against the UPA. These partisan units included Ukrainian, Polish and Jewish partisans, including Jewish survivors of the destruction of the ghettos who had been sheltered by peasants in the countryside or survived in the woods.
On July 27, 1944, the Soviet army liberated Lvov. Despite the desertions from the SS Galizien and formation of the UPA, cooperation with Germany continued. In September 1944 the UPA requested and received arms, supplies and radio equipment from the Nazis. They used these arms and supplies in ambushes of officers and soldiers of the Red Army and the continued mass murder of Poles and anti-fascists of all nationalities, including Ukrainians. The OUN/UPA later made fantastic claims of the enormous number of Red Army troops which had to be deployed to deal with these ambushes, but it appears that these were stories intended to impress the U.S. and improve the terms of sale of its services to a new master.
Germany finally released all of the leaders of the OUN from the concentration camps in the fall of 1944 to assist the rapidly deteriorating German war effort. At this point all of Eastern Poland had been liberated by the Red Army. The SS Galizien was ordered to Czechoslovakia to fight the partisans there, and later to Yugoslavia.
The OUN/UPA Following the Defeat of Fascism
As the victory over fascism became imminent, all the major nationalist leaders were called to Berlin in the dying days of the Third Reich. The SS Galizien surrendered to the British and were imprisoned in Italy. In 1947 they were permitted as an entity to immigrate to Britain and later to Canada. Substantial numbers of OUN-UPA members also immigrated to Canada and the U.S.
This was not the end of the campaign of terror organized by the OUN/UPA. Their campaign of ethnic cleansing, burning villages, massacring Poles and terrorist attacks against public officials, members of the armed forces, members of various political parties and industrial sabotage continued from 1945 right through to 1947, now backed by the U.S. as a crucial part of its plan for war against the Soviet Union.
Notes: Fascist Outlook of the OUN/UPA
Second Congress of the OUN-B, April 1941 – from the OUN Archives:
"The Jews in the USSR constitute the most faithful support of the ruling Bolshevik regime in the vanguard of Muscovite imperialism in the Ukraine. The Muscovite-Bolshevik government exploits the anti-Jewish sentiments of the Ukrainian masses to divert their attention from the true cause of their misfortune and to channel them in time of frustration into pogroms on Jews. The OUN combats the Jews as the prop of the Muscovite-Bolshevik regime and simultaneously renders the masses conscious of the fact that the principal foe is Moscow."
From the German archives (Einsatzgruppen reports, July 16, 1941), a note signed by the OUN-B group:
"Long live a greater independent Ukraine without Jews, Poles and Germans; Poles behind the River San, Germans to Berlin, and Jews to the gallows."
Re: OUN/UPA Collaboration with Nazi Germany, from the German Archives, an excerpt from Ridna Zemlia – an OUN-M publication from Lvov, July 16, 1944:
"The war will last until the Germans will be victorious together with all of Europe, until the dark forces perish, until Bolshevism together with Anglo-American imperialism falls to pieces...The enemy will not break the spirit of Germany and Europe!... We Ukrainians must take our example from the German nation, from its spiritual determination to survive until the last battle, the last victory. Away with all hesitation, away with all doubts, away with all resignation! Only the complete dedication to the task at hand will lead to full victory."
From the diary of Admiral Wilhelm Canaris (head of the German Military intelligence service, the Abwehr):
"I would have to make appropriate preparations with the Ukrainians so that, should this alternative (the incorporation of Galicia as a nominally independent state under the Third Reich) become real, the Melnyk organization (OUN) can produce an uprising which would aim at the annihilation of the Jews and Poles."
Field Report from the Eastern Territories to Gerhard von Mende, director of the Department of Affairs in the Occupied Eastern Territories, Ministry of the Third Reich, November 2, 1944:
"In the interest in realizing its objectives, the UPA – beginning in 1944 – has launched a growing initiative to link its plans to the local units of the Wehrmacht. At the same time, orders were given to its units to support the activities of the Wehrmacht and to cease attacks on individual German soldiers or smaller units of the army for the purpose of obtaining firearms or other supplies. The adequate preparation of the groundwork among the Ukrainian population and the removal of the political obstacles in its military cooperation with the Germans have resulted in a unique type of general cooperation between the UPA and the Wehrmacht in August 1944.
"Regarding the extent and the means of conducting this cooperation, evidently serious contentions have arisen between the directorate of the OUN and that of the UPA because various military necessities arising from the battles with the Red Army did not always fit the politics of the OUN. That organization has kept itself in the background, and it matters a great deal to it that its military cooperation with Germany, and in particular with the Wehrmacht, does not come to light.
"Just as the relationship of the UPA to the Germans, so to have its relations to the Poles and the smaller nationalities of the Soviet Union remained under the influence of the political concepts of the OUN. A world war of extermination had been declared against the Poles because of the age-old tensions between these two nations, regarding other nationalities of the Soviet Union, a policy of coalition has been embarked upon based on the foundation of a mutual war of liberation to be waged against the Soviet Union, or rather, Russia, which found its expression also in the organizational phase (by incorporating individual units of these nationalities into the UPA)...
"The UPA conducted its activities on three levels: a) anti-German; b) anti-Polish; c) anti-Soviet.
"Under the battle-cry of 'revenge' for the Polish policy of extermination in the years 1918-39 and hostile disposition under first the Soviet and then the German occupation, the OUN-UPA began a campaign of annihilation of the Poles, which released all those instincts associated with vengeance stemming from age-old animosities and whose object was the wholesale physical destruction of all that was Polish in this territory. Irrespective of the stated reason for this war ('Poles are the Soviet agents of destruction,' 'Poles are setting the Germans against the Ukrainians,' and the like), one cannot deny that the objective of the OUN-UPA was to cleanse the Ukrainian territory of everything which was Polish, or at least to destroy that which the Poles had achieved in this territory in the years 1918-39. The canvas of the map of nationalities, and foremost in Wolyn, is bound to change fundamentally as a result of this war."
Notes on the Leaders of the OUN/UPA
Leader of the OUN-M, Melnyk was an open supporter of fascism, writing in 1939, "Today...at our side stand other nations – Germany, Italy, Spain, Japan – whose victories aim at the final annihilation of the common enemy. In this battle the leading task falls to Ukraine. The quick conclusion of this battle depends on the strength and tenacity of the Ukrainian nation."
After the war, Melnyk escaped to the West and lived in Luxembourg, West Germany and Canada. He remained politically active and headed a number of Ukrainian émigré organizations. He died in Clervaux, Luxembourg, at the age of 73 in 1964.
Stepan Bandera was a leading member of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and later leader of the Bandera faction of the OUN (OUN-B). He was arrested by the Polish authorities in 1934, and condemned to death for his role in the assassination of the Polish minister of the interior, but his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He was released from prison by the Nazis after the fall of Poland. He was arrested for his refusal to rescind the proclamation of Ukrainian independence issued the day after the German invasion of the Soviet Union began and remained in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp from July 1941 to September 1944. The death of his two brothers at Auschwitz is often cited by the Ukrainian nationalists as proof that they "fought the Nazis." In fact the brothers were killed by Polish guards, likely in retaliation for the OUN ethnic cleansing campaign against the Polish citizens of Volynia/Wolyn.
He became head of the OUN abroad in 1947 (although factional divisions continued which challenged his leadership.)
Elected a member of the OUN leadership in 1945 and head in 1947, Bandera held consistently to the principles of what his followers came to refer to as "integral nationalism" – fascism by another name. In May 1953, he was elected leader of the sections of the OUN abroad.
Bandera died in (West) Germany in 1959, apparently the victim of cyanide gas, which was attributed by West Germany to the KGB. His descendants, including his grandson, live in Canada and continue an ongoing campaign to defend him and to deny all changes of war crimes. His grandson was also an active participant in the "Orange Revolution."
Dontsov was a fascist ideologue and a major influence in the ideology adopted by the OUN. He published a work entitled Natsionalizm in 1926. He was a follower of Mussolini and put forward a fascist conception of the Ukrainian nation. "The strengthening of the nation's will to live, her will to rule, her will to expand – these I have designated as the chief foundation of the idea of nationalism... The second foundation of the idea of a healthy nation should be the aspiration to war, the awareness of its necessity without which heroic deeds are impossible as is an intensive life or faith in it or the triumph of any new idea which seeks the change the face of the world."
Dontsov left Ukraine in 1939. He emigrated to the United States in 1947 and then to Canada in 1948 where he taught Ukrainian literature at the Université de Montréal. In Canada he continued to write for the Ukrainian émigré press, mainly that of the Bandera faction of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). He died in Montreal in 1973 at the age of 90.
The Encyclopedia of Ukraine states: "Dontsov's writing is marked by passionate argumentation and a dynamic style. He quoted his ideological opponents somewhat freely. Dontsov changed his world view several times: he embraced socialism and then renounced it; he rejected religion and then extolled a militant church. All his work was directed clearly against Russia and against the idea of Ukraine's federation with Russia. In defending unconditionally the idea of Ukrainian independence, Dontsov attacked Russian imperialism in all its forms and made a decisive contribution to the undermining of Russophilism and the influence of Communist ideas in Western Ukraine in the 1920s. He pointed out that Ukraine was organically tied to the West and strongly condemned those tendencies among Ukrainians in the 19th and 20th centuries that weakened this tie. Influenced profoundly by the debacle of the Ukrainian struggle for independence (1917-20), for which he blamed its leaders, he idealized Cossack traditions and increasingly emphasized the importance of traditionalism and a ruling caste, and the necessity of militancy and activism among the younger generation. His ideology was built on the principles of voluntarism and idealism: irrational will, according to him, was the main force in the life of the individual and of society. Dontsov believed that ideas have played an increasingly important role in history; hence, he denounced Marxism and historical materialism, thus provoking bitter attacks by the socialist and especially Communist camps. Because of his brilliant style of writing and his oratorical skill, Dontsov's ideas had a great impact on the minds of many young Galician Ukrainians in the 1930s. Nationalism and idealism became a dominant ideology. Dontsov's theses were to a large extent the basis for the revolutionary underground activity of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists in the 1930s. His ideology (Dontsovism) was opposed by Ukrainian democratic and Catholic circles, which condemned his antidemocratic, elitist ethic and his amoral justification (in his system of voluntaristic and pantheistic monism) of any deed that benefits the primacy of the nation. More than any of his contemporaries Dontsov was a figure of both adulation and vilification."
Mykola Lebed was a leading member of the OUN-B and the UPA. Lebed was jailed by the Polish government in 1936 for his role in the assassination of the Polish Minister of the Interior. Following the German attack he was released or escaped in 1939. He managed to evade arrest and therefore became the de facto leader of the OUN while other leaders were in prison. Lebed made his way to Rome and under the protection of the Vatican in 1945 with a treasure trove of names and contacts of anti-Soviets both in western Ukraine and in the displaced persons camps, the enticement he used to sell his services to U.S. imperialism. Lebed was smuggled from Rome to Munich in December 1947. He died in Pittsburgh at about the age of 89 in 1998.
(Hardial Bains Resource Centre)
As the situation in Ukraine develops, imperialist propaganda keeps promoting the false notion that NATO (and by default the U.S.) is somehow an alliance for peace. This fraud is being perpetuated to try to convince people that the situation in Ukraine can be simplistically boiled down to "bad" Russia on one side and "good" U.S. and NATO on the other side. Therefore, everyone should support the U.S. and NATO and oppose Russia and that will somehow bring about peace on earth.
Aside from the fact that the whole history of the U.S. and NATO focuses on war against other countries rather than peace, this big lie is also refuted by the history of NATO itself.
The facts show that as soon as the Hitlerites surrendered at the end of the Second World War, with the Soviet Union playing the main role in their defeat, the Anglo-Americans began helping Germany rebuild, economically and militarily. Germany was to serve as a bulwark against the socialist Soviet Union, the Anglo-Americans' supposed wartime ally, now designated their main foe. This post-war plan, which was already being hatched before the war ended, included the formation of the aggressive NATO alliance in 1949 within which a number of Hitler's military leaders played key roles.
Adolf Heusinger with then U.S.
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara at the Pentagon,
One typical example is General Adolf Heusinger, a career military officer who, with the outbreak of the Second World War, became part of the German headquarters field staff and helped plan the Nazi invasions of Poland, Denmark, Norway, France and the Low Countries. The Nazis perpetrated against Poland one of the worst crimes history has ever known. Poland suffered the largest number of casualties per capita of any European country, with a total of about six million people killed. Heusinger rose quickly through the Wehrmacht's administrative ranks and in 1944 was appointed Adolf Hitler's Chief of the General Staff of the Army.
After the war, Heusinger was interrogated by the Americans but not put on trial. A declassified CIA document says: "Upon surrendering to U.S. Army authorities in May 1945, the question of [Heusinger's] implication as a war criminal arose in connection with certain orders he signed and forwarded which sealed the fate of captured Russian political indoctrination officers and Allied commandos. However, in view of Heusinger's cooperative attitude at Nuremberg and the fact that he had only initialed the orders in transmittal, no action was undertaken. Instead, Heusinger served as a research consultant without pay for the Office of the United States Chief of Counsel for War Crimes at Nuremberg periodically between 1945 and 1948."
So instead of being put on trial for war crimes, Heusinger became an advisor on military matters to Konrad Adenauer, appointed the first Chancellor of West Germany in 1949. One of Adenauer's first acts was denunciation of the denazification of Germany and an amnesty for Nazi war criminals. By the end of January 1951, almost 800,000 war criminals had benefited from the amnesty. Adenauer and John J. McCloy, U.S. High Commissioner for Germany and later Chairman of the Rockefellers' Chase Manhattan Bank and the Ford Foundation, were linked by marriage. McCloy played a key role in the early release from prison of many Nazi war criminals convicted at Nuremburg, including industrialists Alfried Krupp and Friedrich Flick who went right back to enriching themselves by taking leading roles in the post-war German economy.
With the 1955 establishment of the Bundeswehr, the reconstituted West German Armed Forces, Heusinger returned to military service, and was appointed Lieutenant-General in 1955. In 1957, he was promoted to full general and named the first Inspector-General of the Bundeswehr. He served in that capacity until 1961. In 1961, Heusinger was appointed Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, making him the senior military spokesperson for NATO and in 1963 he also became NATO's chief of staff, serving in that capacity until 1964.
Many other prominent ex-Nazis followed similar paths, in particular serving as Commanders-in-Chief of Allied Central Forces Europe. Here are just a few examples:
- General Hans Speidel, who participated in the invasions of Poland, France and the Soviet Union, played a key role in German rearmament and integration into NATO, and in 1957 became Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces Central Europe.
- Sturmführer Dr. Eberhard Taubert worked with Goebbels in the Nazi Ministry of Propaganda where he was responsible for designing the yellow badge for Jews. After the war, he eventually became an adviser to ex-Nazi Franz Josef Strauss, German Minister of Defence from 1956-62, and was assigned by Strauss to NATO's "Psychological Warfare Department" which spewed anti-communist propaganda just as Goebbels' ministry had during the war.
- Nazi Admiral and U-Boat commander Friedrich Guggenberger, whose U-boat sank 17 allied ships, later served as Deputy Chief of Staff in the NATO command Armed Forces North (AFNORTH) 1968-72.
- Johannes Steinhoff, a Luftwaffe fighter pilot, was made Chairman of the NATO Military Committee 1971-74, holding other NATO positions prior to that.
- Johann von Kielmansegg, General Staff officer to the High Command of the Wehrmacht, 1942-44, was NATO's Commander in Chief of Allied Forces Central Europe, 1967-68.
- Ernst Ferber, a major in the Wehrmacht, was NATO's Commander in Chief of Allied Forces Central Europe, 1973-75.
- Karl Schnell, First General Staff officer of the LXXVI Panzer Corps, was NATO's Commander in Chief of Allied Forces Central Europe, 1975-77.
- Franz Joseph Schulze, Chief of the Third Battery of the Flak Storm Regiment 241, was NATO's Commander in Chief of Allied Forces Central Europe, 1977-79.
- Ferdinand von Senger und Etterline, Lieutenant of the 24th Panzer Division of the German Sixth Army, was NATO's Commander in Chief of Allied Forces Central Europe, 1979-83.
The historical facts are clear. Instead of facing trial and paying for the countless crimes they planned and committed, Heusinger, Speidel and other prominent Nazi war criminals were given a free pass by the Anglo-Americans. Instead of being made accountable, they were rewarded for their service to the Nazis by being given key roles in rebuilding the West German army to oppose the Soviet Union and by being appointed as key NATO functionaries in Europe for the same nefarious purposes. There is a clear connection from the Nazis to the U.S. occupiers to the West German military to NATO that once again exposes NATO's true role.
NATO has never been a force for peace or a defence against some fictional Soviet threat. Instead, it has always been an aggressive military alliance that exists solely to serve the aims of U.S. imperialist domination of the world.
(TML Daily, March 28, 2022)
1938 Munich Agreement and Historical Fraud
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain shakes
September 29-30 marks the 85th anniversary of the infamous Munich Agreement signed between the governments of Britain and France, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in 1938.
The Munich agreement signed by Britain and France with Hitler Germany and Fascist Italy is an infamous episode in the history of these countries but the media and pundits remain largely silent about it. The standing ovation the entire Parliament of Canada recently gave an avowed Ukrainian Nazi war criminal who they let into Canada after World War II is perhaps an occasion to show how Canada has in fact conciliated with and actively participated in every possible attempt to wipe out Soviet Russia by engaging in infamy while accusing Russia of being the aggressor. The betrayal carried out by Britain and France at Munich, along with the refusal of these European powers to sign a mutual self-defence Pact with the USSR sealed the fate of the peoples of Europe. The subsequent annexation of the Sudentenland by Hitler destroyed Czechoslovakia's defence system and made the occupation of all of Czechoslovakia by Hitler inevitable. The sacrifice of Czechoslovakia was, for all intents and purposes, the declaration by Britain and France that they would not enter into an alliance with the Soviet Union. The policy of Britain, France, and even Canada at the time, to which the Diaries of then Prime Minister Mackenzie King testify, was to get Hitler to go East and finally attack the Soviet Union.
The Canadian media remains quite silent about the fact that Mackenzie King met Hitler in Germany in 1937, and with British Prime Minister Chamberlain's blessing, showed 'understanding' to Hitler's ambitions in the East.
The Munich Agreement handed over Czechoslovakia to occupation by Nazi Germany and dismemberment by other powers, was the culmination of the reactionary appeasement policy followed by the British government and its allies including Canada. This policy was designed to encourage and reward fascist aggression in general, such as Italy's invasion of Ethiopia, and particularly to encourage Nazi Germany to expand eastwards, to occupy territories such as the Ukraine, as well as the Soviet Union. The British government had long hoped fascism would crush Bolshevism and the construction of the world's first socialist state.
The Soviet Union, faced with Nazi aggression, called on Britain and France to sign a mutual assistance pact with military clauses, based on its long held and principled policy of collective security against such aggression. The governments of Britain and France refused this offer, preferring instead to appease Hitler and Mussolini. They met in Munich without the participation of the governments of Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, having already demanded that the government of Czechoslovakia should not invoke its mutual defence agreement with the Soviet Union.
Chamberlain arriving at Oberwiesenfeld airport to sign the agreement in Munich, 1938
The Munich Agreement was a great betrayal by the governments of Britain and France, not only of the people of Czechoslovakia, but the people of all countries of Europe and the rest of the world. Winston Churchill said at the time: "The partition of Czechoslovakia under pressure from England and France amounts to the complete surrender of the Western democracies to the Nazi threat of force. Such a collapse will bring peace of security neither to England nor to France... It is not Czechoslovakia alone which is menaced, but also the freedom and the democracy of all nations." In Parliament he condemned Prime Minster Chamberlain, who had contemptuously referred to "a quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing," saying: "You were given the choice between war and dishonour. You chose dishonour and you will have war." The Munich Agreement which, amongst other things, ceded Czechoslovakia's important armaments industry to Hitler, sealed the fate of Europe and a year later led directly to the outbreak of World War II in September 1939.
Chamberlain waves the infamous Munich piece of paper, "Peace for Our Time," 1938
To stop the tragic consequences of the U.S. proxy war in Ukraine coming into public consciousness along with the corruption and crimes of their puppet Zelensky government and of Zelensky himself, great efforts are being made to distort and falsify the history of World War II, the causes of war, the role of the USSR who the Anglo-American imperialists to this day call the "aggressors" in World War II, and the role of the U.S., Canada as well as Britain, the Vatican and others in giving refuge to Nazi war criminals and even elevating the worst among them to positions to power in the post-war anti-communist arrangements. The essence of the Cold War propaganda they launched was to equate communism with fascism to provide grounds for the persecution of the communists and glorification of the Nazis to whom they gave refuge by calling them freedom fighters.
In September 2019, the European Parliament even passed a resolution "on the importance of Remembrance for the future of Europe," whose main aim was to equate communism and fascism and blaming the Soviet Union for "dividing Europe and the territories of independent states between the two totalitarian regimes and grouping them into spheres of interest, which paved the way for the Second World War."
The BBC produced a docu-drama series, Rise of the Nazis, which also obscured much of the relevant history, not least because it largely focused on the actions of individuals and ignored the fact that fascism in Germany was nurtured not only by the most reactionary circles in that country but also by the ruling circles in the United States as well as Britain and France. It was the U.S. which not only appeased Nazi Germany but financed and re-armed Weimar Germany, through such means as the 1924 Dawes Plan and the 1935 Anglo-German Naval Agreement.
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