July 2, 2020 - No. 46

Justice for Migrant Workers!

Ontario Government's Dehumanizing Plan for Migrant Agricultural Workers

Something Rotten in Ontario's Greenhouse Operations -- and it Isn't the Tomatoes - Margaret Villamizar
Spirited Actions in Leamington Demand Justice for Migrant Workers
Advocating for Seasonal Agricultural Workers in British Columbia - Interview, Perla G. Villegas-Diaz
Playing with the Lives of Temporary Foreign Workers in Quebec:
It Must Not Pass!
- Diane Johnston

Justice for Migrant Workers!

Ontario Government's Dehumanizing Plan for Migrant Agricultural Workers

There are now over 1,000 agri-farm workers, most of them migrant workers, who have tested positive for COVID-19 in Ontario. Over 700 of these have been associated with workplaces in Leamington and Kingsville. Over the weekend 191 new cases were confirmed by the Windsor-Essex Public Health Unit, all of them from a single operation. Although the health unit has not named the company, the Windsor Star reports that it was told by a national representative of the United Food and Commercial Workers Union that it is Nature Fresh Farms in Leamington.

Government's New Public Health Guidance:
Work-Isolation Instead of Self-Isolation

On June 24, one day after calling out "farmers" for not cooperating in getting their workers tested for COVID-19, Premier Doug Ford did a 180-degree flip. In twenty-four hours he went from blaming and pleading with the "farmers" in Essex County to do the right thing, to praising them for stepping up to the plate. Now, they were  helping get more of their workers tested to determine the extent of the outbreak among agricultural workers in order to get it under control and keep it from spreading throughout the community.  

A related about-face was his announcement that Windsor and Essex County, with the exception of Leamington and Kingsville, would be allowed to advance to Stage 2 reopening, a reversal of his position the day before when he said the entire area had to remain at Stage 1 -- the only jurisdiction in the province with that level of restrictions. That had small business people up in arms, leading many to vent their anger against big greenhouses going full tilt in the middle of outbreaks and resisting having their workers tested, while they were forced to keep their small shops and restaurants closed and feared they might lose those businesses.

So what changed? It became apparent a deal had been struck when Ford announced his government's three-point Plan to Reduce Transmission on Farms and in the Community in Windsor-Essex. The first point calls for expanded testing at agri-food businesses and in the community. The second point is an attempt to provide reassurance that no worker would lose their job if they had to take "unpaid sick leave" because of COVID-19, that they could apply for workers' compensation, and some possibly even for EI or CERB. It also says that temporary foreign workers all have "protections like any other worker in Ontario" under such things as the Employment Standards Act.

No mention is made of the many exemptions that apply to farm workers and more so to migrant farm workers when it comes to employment standards and labour laws in Ontario, leaving them basically at the mercy of their employers, without being able to unionize or bargain collectively to have a say over their working conditions (and where it applies, deplorable living conditions).

Point three reveals the crux of the deal the government struck with growers to get their buy-in for mass workplace testing rather than resisting it. A new public health guidance is introduced for the sector that provides for "allowing" workers who test positive but are asymptomatic to keep on working, "as long as they follow the public health measures in their workplace to minimize the risk of transmission to others." Ford mused that the new rules would allow COVID-19 positive but asymptomatic workers to continue to work, grouped together, outside, and eating and sleeping separately from other workers.[1]

The new guidance appears to give an infected worker who does not show or report symptoms the option of self-isolating rather than continuing to work ("work isolate") if that is their "choice." There is no "choice" for migrant farm workers who who came here to earn a living to support their families at home when being off work even while sick, for most means they will not get paid. These workers' lives are being put at risk by the government of Ontario in keeping with the self-serving wishes of agribusiness owners.

What is also left unspoken is that a significant section of temporary foreign workers who work in the fields, greenhouses and vegetable packing facilities in Essex County are undocumented workers. They are paid under the table in cash, usually through a recruiter or some other agent who hires them out to companies, taking their own pound of flesh.

These workers operating below the radar have no access to the income supports and protections the government claims all migrant workers enjoy if they must, or "choose" to, self-isolate rather than continuing to work should they test positive.

Responses to Government's New Plan

The government's new plan was immediately praised by industry owners who clearly played a big role in coming up with it. One of these was Peter Quiring, president and CEO of Nature Fresh Farms that has been identified unofficially as the site of a major outbreak of COIVD-19. Quiring, who says approximately 360 "guest workers" are included in his staff of around 670 workers, called the government’s new guidance "fantastic" when it was announced. "I was personally working with Doug Ford and Ontario health on this, as well as many others," he said. "We really like the conclusions that we've come to. We think this is going to work well." 

Quiring said isolating asymptomatic workers on farms and "the fact that we can keep working" is the most important part of the new plan. He said at the time that he was not concerned that asymptomatic workers would transmit COVID-19 to other employees, "because we're distancing." 

Nature Fresh is the largest bell pepper producer in North America, shipping 7 million kilograms of product a year.

Migrant worker advocates were equally quick to respond. Syed Hussan, executive director of the Migrant Workers Alliance for Change, denounced the government and agri-food owners for treating migrants as expendable, calling their plan "dehumanizing" and "debilitating." He said "You would not allow your father, your son, your brother, your mother, your sister, your daughter to be treated like this," adding that "Ontario has responded to three farmworker deaths by signing a death warrant for more migrant workers."

Justice for Migrant Workers (J4MW) spokesperson Chris Ramsaroop called for the agri-food industry to immediately cease production until proper sanitation and safety measures are implemented, saying the interests of the workers must be paramount, instead of the profits of a billion-dollar industry.

Doctors and other health care experts have responded with incredulity at the inhuman new guidance and the unscientific gobbledygook being used by the government and employers to justify it. On June 30 a group of them posted an open letter to Ontario's Chief Officer of Medical Health on the internet calling on him to use his powers under the Health Protection and Promotion Act to immediately rescind the measure. They have invited other health care professionals to sign and share the letter. It can be found here

Windsor-Essex Medical Officer of Health Dr. Wajid Ahmed said on June 30 that he had not cleared any of the hundreds of workers who had tested positive and whose cases had been examined, to return to work, whether they were asymptomatic or not. He reported that at the time there were between 400 to 450 migrant workers in self-isolation and said farms needed to act proactively by immediately isolating any worker who tested positive and getting any close contacts tested.

Then on July 1, in addition to announcing 7 new cases in the agri-farm sector, the health unit issued an update regarding the outbreak at an operation it did not name but is presumed to be Nature Fresh Farms where 191 new cases were identified over the weekend. It stated:

Given the size of this outbreak, the potential for COVID-19 transmission, and the ongoing risk to the health and safety of the workers, Medical Officer of Health Dr. Wajid Ahmed is issuing an order under section 22 of the Health Protection and Promotion Act (HPPA) effective July 1. The order requires the owner/operator of the farm to ensure the isolation of workers and prohibits them from working until further direction. [....]

The safety and well-being of all workers is our top priority. It is imperative that we stop the transmission of COVID-19 in this farm and our agricultural sector. All affected workers must be isolated and their health and wellbeing be monitored before any return to work can be discussed.

An official later clarified that the order to isolate applied to all workers at the location, not just those who had tested positive, effectively shutting the operation down for the time being.


1. The government's new guidance gives responsibility to the local public health unit to provide direction to workers deemed to be asymptomatic who have tested positive. It says these workers must self-isolate or "work-isolate" if that is determined appropriate by the health unit, for 14 days. Should symptoms develop, they should self-isolate for 14 days from the time of symptom onset. Close contacts of the asymptomatic workers who are not tested can also either self-isolate or work-isolate if that is determined appropriate by the health unit.

(With files from CBC, Windsor Star, CTV)

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Something Rotten in Ontario's Greenhouse Operations -- and it Isn't the Tomatoes

Instead of affirming the rights of workers infected with the coronavirus and permitting them to recover fully and not risk infecting others, the Ontario government working directly with some of the largest greenhouse operators and without any voice for the workers, has decided to allow workers who have tested postive for COVID-19 to work in the fields and greenhouses as long as they are not displaying or reporting symptoms.

In other words, workers will have to choose whether or not to report the symptoms they might be experiencing. It is equivalent to having the "choice" whether to feed your family or not since paid sick leave is not a requirement in Ontario or of the federal government's Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program. This program last year brought in around 25,000 workers from Mexico and smaller numbers from Jamaica and several other Caribbean countries through contracts between the Canadian government and governments of the sending countries. Then there is the issue of those who have been identified as close contacts of these workers, some of whom would have the same "choice" to make.

Not a small number of workers in this industry work under the table since they are undocumented (at least 2,000 are believed to be in this category in Essex County) or for other reasons. Sometimes these precarious workers travel between workplaces, assigned by recruiters to different operations as short term "contract workers." This has likely already contributed to the spread of the virus, and to the death of 24-year-old Rogelio Muñoz Santos, one of the three Mexican migrant workers who have died in Ontario from COVID-19. To presume this practice will now disappear because it is no longer "allowed" is a fairy tale or more likely an attempt to hide what is rotting in the greenhouse operations.

The large agribusinesses operating in Essex County make their profits by treating migrant workers as if they are expendable, preying on their economic vulnerability as a result of the economies of their homelands, especially the agricultural sector, being ddestroyed by neo-liberal globalization and "free trade" agreements like NAFTA and CUSMA.

Governments, instead of affirming the rights of the workers, are determined to maintain the profits of these agribusinesses at the expense of the workers using laws which prevent them from organizing. They ensure, through contracts negotiated with the governments of Mexico and 12 Caribbean countries, that seasonal agricultural workers are supplied for up to eight months a year and that wages are kept to the minimum.

The fact that much of the production from this part of Southwestern Ontario goes to U.S. markets shows a serious problem with the direction of Canada's economy[1]. Food production is not geared towards food security for the Canadian people, despite the industry being deemed "critical" to Canada's food supply after growers engaged in high-level lobbying to ensure they could get the workers they require into the country despite the border being closed to international travel. It is all about keeping large multi-million dollar industrial enterprises, some of them multinational -- and certainly not family farms as some like to call them -- profitable in a highly competitive sector. One of the ways this is done is by limiting the claims of the workers, and at the expense of the well-being of the human beings who generate the industry's profits turning nature into the massive bounty that comes from modern greenhouse operations.

The collaboration of various levels of governments with this inhumane setup shows that governments operate as an extension of these large enterprises and view the workers' claims as a problem.

Why does the agriculture industry have to run on such an inhuman basis? Why are governments forcing infected workers to keep working? What does this tell us about the aim of Canada's food production system? Or the safety of it? What is the point of the economy when workers' lives are expendable but maximum profits are essential?

The greenhouse operations in Southwestern Ontario are part of the integrated North American economy. They supply fresh produce of all kinds to the United States and produce profits for their owners on the basis of depressed wages and working conditions of local and foreign workers, access to water from the Great Lakes, and government subsidies and services of various kinds.

What has been exposed through the pandemic confirms that a new direction is needed. Food production should be organized to meet the need of Canadians for healthy food and of workers, irrespective of where they come from, for livelihoods at a Canadian standard.

Ironically, July 1 marks the coming into force of the new NAFTA (CUSMA). During its renegotiation, the Canadian government and its team made a big deal of insisting that Mexico raise its labour and human rights standards. The facts reveal that Canada is in no position to give lessons to Mexico.


1. The Financial Post reported in April 2020 that according to Statistics Canada, exports accounted for 65 per cent of the total value of Canada’s greenhouse vegetable production in 2016, the last year for which numbers are reported.

(With files from Windsor Star, CBC, CTV. Photos: WF, Justice for Migrant Workers. Photos: Justice for Migrant Workers)

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Spirited Actions in Leamington Demand
Justice for Migrant Workers

March for migrant workers' rights, Leamington, June 28, 2020.

On Sunday June 28 actions were held in Leamington, Ontario to show the support of the working people of Ontario for agricultural workers in the Leamington-Kingsville area, a centre of greenhouse growing and packing operations in Essex County. The actions were organized by Justice for Migrant Workers and local youth, and were joined by working people of many ages and backgrounds.

A long line of vehicles set out from the Walmart parking lot and drove past a number of agri-food workplaces. People painted messages on their vehicles or attached signs to them in English and Spanish expressing solidarity with migrant workers and demanding their rights be upheld and guaranteed. Many members of local unions flew their flags from their car windows and carried them in the march following the caravan. Among them were flags from the Canadian Union of Public Employees, Canadian Union of Postal Workers, Ontario Public Service Employees' Union, Canadian Office and Professional Employees, Ontario English Catholic Teachers' Association, Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario, International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Unifor, the Windsor and District Labour Council and the Ontario Federation of Labour. Among those participating in the caravan was OFL President Patty Coates.

The caravan drove past many greenhouses, horns honking in a show of solidarity, aware that workers were inside some buildings despite it being Sunday. Many drivers the caravan passed honked their horns as well, signalling their support for workers who are an important part of their community. One of the large operations on the caravan’s route was the multinational cannabis giant Aphria, as well as a greenhouse operation it has a joint venture with Double Diamond Farms. A bunkhouse for migrant workers employed by Double Diamond Farms was the subject of a video that has been circulated widely showing how 12 workers are forced to live in cramped quarters with only cardboard and thin cotton sheets separating their bunks.

The caravan ended at the Big Tomato, a landmark in downtown Leamington where participants rallied and shouted slogans.

Elizabeth Ha, an activist with Justice for Migrant Workers and OPSEU member who is on the Windsor and District Labour Council Executive was the caravan's main organizer. She said a lot of people in the community didn't really know about the conditions migrant workers have faced for a long time, but as a result of the pandemic they were starting to see those things now. She said the caravan and march let the workers know the community stands in solidarity with them and wants to thank them. They are essential workers. But, said Ha, they don't have the same rights that we do. She said the government needed to make changes and cannot keep avoiding it.

A March for Migrant Workers' Rights followed the caravan, organized by local young women activists. It went through the streets of Leamington with participants shouting slogans and displaying signs and banners. It ended with a rally outside Lakeside Produce, another of the large greenhouse, packing and distribution operations. There organizers held a speak-out denouncing the Ontario and Canadian governments for their support for the exploitation of vulnerable workers in this sector. They specifically demanded an accounting for the $15 million the Ontario government gave greenhouse operators to purchase PPE for their workers, which some workers report their employers are forcing them to pay for.

Speakers denounced the entire agribusiness sector that is based on the super-exploitation of migrant and undocumented and poor workers, pointing out that whether in meat processing or vegetable processing, the industry is based on exploitation and is not sustainable, referring to calls from some quarters that a solution to problems in agribusiness or those related to climate change lies in moving from meat-based to plant-based foods and production. Speakers also informed the crowd about the three migrant workers from Mexico who had died of COVID-19, humanizing them by repeating their names and appealing to everyone to consider them like they would their own family.

(With files from Windsor Star. Photos: WF, Justice for Migrant Workers)

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Advocating for Seasonal Agricultural Workers
in British Columbia

Migrant workers' organizers in Kelowna, BC, June 17, 2019.

Workers' Forum interviewed Perla G. Villegas-Diaz, an activist and researcher with Radical Action with Migrants in Agriculture (RAMA), who herself is from Mexico. She is in Canada with her family studying International Development at Okanagan College.

Workers' Forum: Tell us about your work with seasonal agricultural workers.

Perla G. Villegas-Diaz:I came to Canada almost three years ago. I am a lawyer in Mexico, worked for 15 years with a federal human rights tribunal, and while I am studying here I learned of the situation of migrant farm workers in this community and last year I accepted work as a research assistant with RAMA. To be honest I didn't know anything about the conditions of workers who come to Canada every year to work on farms. When you live in Mexico you think that those who go to Canada or the U.S. are "living the dream." Last year I met a lot of workers and I remember two in particular who told me "Can you imagine working more than 10 hours a day without being allowed to use a washroom or being allowed to drink water, even when it is 38 degrees?" They live in crowded conditions.

WF: Have there been any changes this year because of the COVID-19? Are there any new measures being put in place to improve the living conditions to protect the workers?

PV: No, it's exactly the same. We thought that there would be improvements because the government said that employers had to provide the best sanitary conditions for workers, no crowded housing, social distancing. When I started to visit SAWP workers before the peak of COVID-19 I realized the employers were just keeping the same things.

I had a phone call from a worker in Mexico asking me, how am I going to live, what is the housing, how is the employer going to treat me now, so I decided to talk with his employer and they just told me, well tell him that we're going to take care of him, we have a trailer for him to live in, the trailer has the best water and electrical conditions but no, no, the government did not talk about trailers, the government talked about having the workers in quarantine in hotels or in other houses. I talked to several employers and it was clear that they were not about to take care of the workers. I think that is the reason the British Columbia government decided to take care of the 14-day quarantine in hotels near the Vancouver airport when the workers arrive, before they were allowed to come to Kelowna, because they realized that the employers were not respecting the rules.

WF: Are there fewer migrant workers this year?

PV: There are fewer people from Mexico and from Jamaica, I know. The majority of workers who come to BC are from Mexico, I think about 70 per cent, and the rest are from Jamaica, and probably 5 per cent from Guatemala.

WF: What does RAMA do?

PV: RAMA was founded ten years ago by Amy Cohen and Elise Hjalmarson and we help migrant workers in many ways. For example, we provide English classes, we organize soccer games and other social events. If they have an emergency we take them to the doctor. We translate for them. If they have problems with employers or managers we also offer interpretation and translation services. What we want is to socialize with them, to make them feel included in Canadian society because all the farms here are far away from the city and the workers are very isolated. We also make the people in the Okanagan aware of their presence in the community, the role they play in food production and their working conditions. We also provide legal assistance.

WF: How are the workers recruited?

PV: Since 1974 there is a memorandum of understanding between Mexico and Canada. The employer has to fill out a Labour Market Impact Assessment then this documentation goes to the labour office in Mexico and in Mexico they have a big list of workers they provide the Canadian employers. This is between the Mexican consulate in Vancouver and the employers in BC. There's a lot of discrimination. Employers don't want women so they don't select women from the list. They also try to get the same workers year after year so new people have little chance. Employers can also refuse to take a worker that has been 'complicated,' complained to Worksafe BC or spoke out loud about the working or living conditions. This means workers don't speak out, even to the consulate, because they fear losing the work. This is a kind of punishment. 

Two days ago I talked with a worker who told me "two years ago I had an accident and I seriously injured my back and then I talked with the consulate. My employer took good care of me but the consulate told the employer that I needed to get back to Mexico," so even when the employer was worried about the worker the consulate decided to take him to Mexico and once the worker was in Mexico the consulate told the worker 'well you are in Mexico, you don't deserve any medication, you don't deserve any treatment, your wife can take care of you.' Then the consulate cancelled his application to work in Canada for two years. Now he is here but he decided not to talk to anyone about anything. He told me, if I have an accident I have to take care of myself by myself and god help me.

WF: How has COVID-19 complicated matters?

PV: Workers under the SAWP are forbidden to unionize and are denied basic rights that Canadian workers have. There are many examples of poor living conditions. Last year we visited one farm where the employer housed 15 workers in a small room four metres square. One worker told me that he has to walk about one kilometre to use the washroom and he is not paid for the time it takes to go there and back. He said the washroom hadn't been cleaned in one year. So COVID-19 complicates things because of the overcrowded houses, because of the poor sanitation and because workers get respiratory and skin injuries because they are constantly exposed to the use of pesticides and irritants with no protection. What has changed is the fact that they are more policed than they used to be because employers don't want anyone to know about their conditions, so they are even more isolated. 

At one farm with about 100 workers the workers told us "don't come here, don't approach us because if the employer sees us talking with any person not from the farm we are going to be punished with being put in quarantine for two weeks without pay, so please don't come around. Don't even call us frequently because if one of the managers knows that I am talking to you I am going to be punished." As well, SAWP workers are not eligible for citizenship or permanent resident status. 

Farm workers are considered crucial to food production in Canada because they are willing to do the dirty work, but they are undesirable as permanent residents. One of my friends has been working in Canada for 26 years, coming to Canada to work for seven to eight months every year, then going back to Mexico but still she is undesirable as a permanent resident. This is not acceptable and RAMA supports the call for permanent resident status for seasonal agricultural workers.

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Playing with the Lives of Temporary Foreign Workers in Quebec: It Must Not Pass!

This year, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is estimated that Quebec will only receive a maximum of 12,000 Mexican and Guatemalan temporary foreign agricultural workers instead of the approximately 17,000 who came last year. To make up for the shortfall, huge pressure is being exerted by some employers on those already here, who are being asked to work 16-18 hour days. They're exhausted and even though they may be told that they don't have to, "they're scared," says Michel Pilon of the Quebec Migrant Agricultural Workers Help Network (RATTMAQ).

In April, the help line set up by the organization, whose mission is to offer assistance to Quebec's temporary foreign agricultural workers on issues relating to immigration, health, education and francization, received close to two dozen telephone calls from foreign workers overly-solicited by their employers to make up for the slack. And although all the complaints remain anonymous, they nonetheless testify to the huge pressure being exerted on these workers by some employers in Quebec's agri-food industry.

Unwarranted and unauthorized confinement measures are also being taken against some of these workers by certain employers, which only exacerbates the intolerable stress these workers are experiencing.

Upon their arrival at the airport, RATTMAQ has been handing out leaflets to these Mexican and Guatemalan temporary foreign workers about COVID-19, the 14-day quarantine period they are to be immediately placed under, along with information on their rights during this period of the pandemic.

In April, RATTMAQ received over twenty calls regarding disciplinary measures that had been taken against some workers for having left the farm after their 14-day quarantine was over. For example, one of these workers had decided to go out on his day off to buy food. Although he had followed the required social distancing measures, disciplinary action was taken against him because he had left the farm. "Producers are saying they're afraid COVID-19 will make its way to their farms, so they're controlling their movements. That's not okay," RATTMAQ spokesperson Michel Pilon told the media.

Quebec's Union of Agricultural Producers notes in one of its newsletters that following their quarantine, workers fall under the same rules as everyone else when going outside. It adds that they have the right to leave the farm if they so desire. The employer's responsibility, it points out, is to ensure they are aware of the rules when going out, of social distancing and the risk of infection. Preventing them from going off-site, it warns, would contravene Quebec's Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms.

The United Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW Quebec), which represents some of these workers, has also been informed that some workers have been prohibited from leaving their employer's grounds. UFCW Quebec representative Julio Lara was forced to intervene with one employer, after some workers were suspended for having left their employer's grounds.

Just like the many other temporary foreign migrants, including refugee claimants and international students working in Quebec's health care sector, slaughterhouses, warehouses and in our fields, these workers' rights are being grossly violated. Not only do they face the denial of their rights by their employer, the Quebec and the federal government also bear huge responsibility for their living and working conditions and continue to turn a blind eye to their fate. Though they are often enticed here with the possibility of being able to settle permanently, the decks continue to be stacked against them through constant arbitary changes to immigration policy by both the Quebec and federal governments.

Regarding the insufferable stress they are placed under, one example is the letter dated April 1, 2020, signed by federal Health Minister Patty Hajdu and Employment Minister Carla Qualtrough, which informs employers that "It is important that you know that penalties of up to $750,000 can be levied against a temporary foreign worker for non-compliance with an Emergency Order made under the Quarantine Act."[1]

On April 22, the federal government announced it was removing the restriction allowing international students to work a maximum of 20 hours per week while classes are in session, "provided they are working in an essential service or function, such as health care, critical infrastructure, or the supply of food or other critical goods." This measure significantly increases the risk of them contracting COVID-19.

In Quebec, the new measures brought in by the Legault government through its reformed Quebec Experience Program (PEQ), which came into force at the end of June, will increasingly prevent many low-skilled temporary workers and international students from being able to permanently settle in Quebec.

Quebeckers and Canadians from all walks of life continue to rally to the cause of these and other essential workers for the full recognition of their rights, including permanent residency upon arrival. The jobs these workers fill are not temporary, they are recurring, with no takers in the Quebec and Canadian domestic market, because of the conditions of indentured labour attached to them.

The workers who fill these recurring jobs year in, year out, must be given permanent residency upon arrival if they so desire, as must all essential workers living here whose status has not been regularized. Their rights as human beings, as well as workers, to decent and dignified working and living conditions must be recognized now. It is only by working together and organizing in defence of the rights of all that we will succeed, shoulder to shoulder, in turning their situation around. If they are good enough to work, then they are certainly good enough to stay and deserve the same rights as other Quebec workers. As essential workers, they are the ones providing care and ensuring that food is put on our tables. By speaking out and organizing with them in defence of their rights, we are also fighting for the recognition and guarantee of our own.


1. TML Weekly, May 2, 2020, Temporary Foreign Workers Merit Permanent Residency, Not Threats! - Diane Johnston

(With files from Le Devoir, RATTMAQ, TML Weekly, Government of Canada. Photos: WF, Debout pour la dignité)

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