• Week in Cuba
Marked by Denunciations of Terrorist Plots
Week in Cuba Marked by Denunciations
U.S.-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista (left) with his henchman the reactionary Rafael Díaz-Balart, who was Batista's Minister of the Interior. Following the revolution, Díaz-Balart founded the counterrevolutionary group "La Rosa Blanca." His sons are the notorious anti-Cuba Congressmen Lincoln and Mario Díaz-Balart.
"La Rosa Blanca" was the first counterrevolutionary organization established in the U.S. by the henchmen of Fulgencio Batista's dictatorship who had fled Cuba because of the abuse and crimes they had committed. From 1959, it was linked to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Dominican dictator Rafael Leonidas Trujillo to organize an uprising in the Escambray mountains. It is remembered for having burned down schools, the homes of campesinos, sugarcane fields and textile factories, wounding and maiming countless individuals and provoking considerable economic damage.
Why is a U.S. Congressman reactivating an organization of this kind in the 21st century? What for?
Díaz-Balart's current chicanery cannot obscure his intention to receive and channel part of the million-dollar funds allocated by the U.S. government for subversion, loot that they all want to seize, giving nothing to other notorious terrorists such as Roberto Martín Pérez and his fellow descendents of torturers from the Batista dictatorship who also took part in the re-foundation of La Rosa Blanca.
His colleague Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, who earned the nickname "Ferocious She-Wolf" for her shameful role in the kidnapping of Elián carries on her shoulders the responsibility for having done more than anyone else during her 1988 political campaign for the release of Orlando Bosch, a close friend of Enrique Ros -- the legislator's father -- and also Posada Carriles' co-author in the attack on a Cuban passenger plane that cost the lives of 73 people.
In 1991, during the administration of George Bush Sr., Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen interceded with the President to have three U.S. Air Force type 0-2 planes -- the military version of the Cessna used in reconnaissance missions -- delivered to the Brothers to the Rescue group headed by José Basulto, a former Playa Giron mercenary, a terrorist and CIA agent. On July 19, 1992, as the airborne operations started, for the very first time the press published photos of the aircraft presented to that counterrevolutionary group, with the U.S. Air Force insignia clearly visible in a report by the editor of The Miami Herald, who took a flight with them.
Incited by Congress members Ileana Ros and Lincoln Díaz-Balart, as well as by other counterrevolutionary organizations in Miami, Brothers to the Rescue staged provocations over Cuban territory in order to damage the favorable process of talks initiated by the United States and Cuba after the Migratory Accords of 1994 and 1995.
Under the auspices of the Miami Mafia, this counterrevolutionary group concentrated all its efforts on provoking an incident and violated Cuban airspace 25 times in 20 months, including flights over Havana dropping various objects which led to the events of February 24, 1996 and the downing of the aircraft.
Once again, this provocation strained U.S.-Cuba relations and encouraged the adoption of the Helms-Burton Act, whose content makes it more difficult to find solutions in the future to the dispute between the two countries, as it codifies into law all of the measures related to the intense U.S. economic, commercial and financial blockade.
In 2008, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen headed another effort, this time for the presidential pardon of terrorist Eduardo Arocena, the mastermind behind the murder of Cuba's ambassador to the UN, Felix García Rodríguez in 1980 and the bombs placed in public places in the U.S. More recently, Ros-Lehtinen has played a major role raising funds to pay for Posada Carriles' defense attorneys.
"The CANF goals are my own," she said. This was her early commitment in 1989 with the terrorist organization that put up her candidacy and used all of its economic and political power to ensure her a seat in the U.S. Congress. "I approve the possibility of someone murdering Fidel Castro," she said to a British BBC documentary maker in March 2006, while she sat calmly in her Washington office.
U.S.-backed terrorist Francisco Chávez Abarca arrives in Havana in early July after being extradicted from Venezuela. (CubaDebate)
Various analysts have addressed the concern and expectations in the U.S. arising from the arrest of Chávez Abarca, particularly among members of Congress and officials whose political careers are very closely linked to Posada, the CIA and CANF. There are rumors that some of the most anxious are anti-Cuban New Jersey Congressmen Bob Menéndez and Albio Sires. The former has always sponsored terrorists, from the days when his community "adviser" was Alfredo Chumaceiro Anillo who, on July 24, 1976, tried to blow up the Lincoln Center Theater during a performance by a troupe of Cuban artists.
Menéndez was a close friend and the son-in-law of the late CANF director Arnaldo Monzón Plasencia, who not only made donations to his election campaigns but also contributed $25,000 to defray the expenses for the terrorist actions of 1997. His personal assistant for the planning and murder of said Cuban diplomat was José Manuel Alvarez, a.k.a. "The Bear." Others involved in that assassination were the convict Arocena, ex-leader of Omega 7, and hired assassin Pedro Remón Rodríguez who shot our official. This crime, like many others, remains unpunished.
Another revealing link is attorney Guillermo Hernández, one of Menéndez's most active consultants. He is now acting as an independent council to Posada Carriles in order to try and prevent his extradition to Venezuela and to face other charges that might be brought against him.
One of Congressman Albio Sires' closest advisors is Angel Manuel Alfonso Alemán, a.k.a. "La Cota," a member of the terrorist commando unit detained in Puerto Rico in 1997 on board a CANF vessel on its way to Margarita Island, Venezuela, with the intention of assassinating Commander in Chief Fidel Castro Ruz using high powered rifles while he attended the 7th Ibero-American Summit of Heads of State. Alfonso Alemán is one of his main contacts with Posada Carriles and the Miami Mafia.
Nor does it come as any surprise that the notorious CANF, which for a long time sponsored a great number of terrorist groups bent on damaging our interests, both inside and outside of the national territory, is now publicly adopting -- just like the others -- an image of apparent moderation, while it funds and supplies resources for the provocative actions of the so-called Ladies in White and tries to promote domestic discontent, which they pay for with their own money and that allocated by U.S. entities.
If terrorism is no longer fashionable, what was the purpose of Chávez Abarca's trip to Venezuela? What was he doing during those suspicious movements around Central America? Who are behind his actions? What have U.S. officials done to prevent them from bringing their terrorist plans to fruition in Miami, El Salvador, Guatemala or Cuba? How effective were the measures adopted by previous Salvadoran governments to halt their freedom to kill?
The detainee has already admitted the destabilizing plans he would have carried out in that sister nation, attempting to kill leaders of the Bolivarian process or damage their image in light of the forthcoming elections on September 26. Chávez Abarca has said that it was his purpose "to burn tires, promote street disturbances, and attack a political party so that it sets upon another one."
He has revealed that one of Posada Carriles' most important plans at the moment is to try to sink ships taking oil from Venezuela to Havana. He also said that CANF has allocated nearly $100 million to plans to damage Venezuela, as it believes that the South American country is the "financial backbone" of Cuba, Ecuador, Bolivia and Guatemala.
According to his statements, at the end of September 2005 they planned to assassinate President Hugo Chávez. To that end, Posada instructed him to use a .50 caliber Barret rifle.
Ever since that mercenary left prison in September 2007, after serving a sentence for trafficking stolen cars, he started working in coordination with Posada to carry out acts of violence against Cuba and other nations of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our Americas (ALBA), including attempts on the life of President Chávez in exchange for money.
At the time of his arrest, and in order to ensure such objectives, he had instructions from his bosses in Florida to undertake intelligence activities in Venezuelan territory with the aim of creating the necessary logistics to implement covert operations.
With Posada's support, this mercenary has operated and taken refuge in Costa Rica, Guatemala and El Salvador.
During the preliminary investigation into the case, the detainee has admitted that he was recruited as a mercenary and trained by Posada Carriles himself, who gave him firsthand instructions and paid $2,000 for every bomb that went off in Cuba. He received the instructions during meetings in hotels and other places in El Salvador, Costa Rica and Guatemala where he met terrorists from the Cuban American National Foundation (CANF) such as Arnaldo Monzón Plasencia, Pedro Remón Rodríguez, Guillermo Novo Sampol and Gaspar Jiménez Escobedo. "All of them clearly said that they belong to the Foundation and that Posada is a member of CANF in Miami," said Chávez Abarca.
He added that Posada boasted of having to ask for CIA consent every time he was to carry out one of his violent attacks on Cuba, and that on one occasion he had said that the man who had interrupted the conversation was a CIA officer, his handler, who had called him on the phone. He also said that it was easy for him to evade the very few inquiries into his actions conducted by the FBI and the State Intelligence Office in El Salvador.
As for Posada's personal connections in El Salvador, he said that he had an excellent relationship with almost every right wing president before the current government. He mentioned Calderón Sol, Cristiani and Francisco Flores, the latter of which he used to go fishing. He also mentioned his friend Rodrigo Avila who was police Commissioner twice. "They all visited the Foundation people in Miami," he added.
Chávez Abarca related that in 1997, when Cuban TV broadcast a program showing Salvadoran terrorist Raúl Ernesto Cruz León admitting his connection to CANF and Posada Carriles, the latter instructed him to kill the members of the man's family; thus he now fears for the fate of his wife and children.
Chávez Abarca not only recruited and trained other Central American mercenaries previously arrested in Cuba -- one Salvadoran and three Guatemalans -- but he also placed bombs in the Aché disco and on the 15th floor of the Meliá Cohíba hotel, on April 12 and 30, 1997, respectively, and another one at the Comodoro hotel, while an international chess tournament was taking place with over 40 children participating. Some of these children could have been killed as they unknowingly played with the bag where the explosive device was camouflaged.
The bomb found on the eve of May 1st, 1997, on the 15th floor of the Meliá Cohíba hotel contained 1.5 kilograms of the highly-destructive plastic explosive C-4, used by the military and capable of destroying buildings, bridges and vessels.
In that period, the terrorist ring led by Posada Carriles and the CANF brought into the country over 30 explosive devices -- 18 of them in less than a year -- 11 of which blew up in various tourist facilities, including the one that caused the death of Italian tourist Fabio Di Celmo, injuries to others and substantial material damage.
Nevertheless, there could have been thousands of fatalities if they had perpetrated their plans on normally-crowded recreational and tourist centers like the Tropicana cabaret, nightclubs, hotels and monuments, all of them frustrated by the Cuban State Security with the cooperation of the people.
The CANF and those from the U.S. government who incited and permitted this kind of actions had some obvious objectives: to build the perception that these actions had been executed by domestic opposition groups; to trigger panic and instability; to deal a strong blow to tourism; and, to bring chaos to the national economy.
Coinciding with these acts of violence, between 1990 and the first years of the current decade, the Miami Mafia implemented more than 25 terrorist attacks in the U.S. territory, which included bomb blasts, aggressions with firearms, verbal threats and provocations against Cuban interests, immigrants, travel agencies, individuals and organizations supportive of Cuba, and even death threats against President William Clinton and his Secretary of Justice Janet Reno for their decision to return young Elián González.
In addition, throughout this decade we had to deal with plans to assassinate the Commander in Chief at practically every Ibero-American Summit held in various capitals and during his trips abroad, as proven by the capture of Posada and his henchmen red-handed in Panama, where in order to assassinate him they were willing to kill hundreds of university students and other participants during an event presided over by compañero Fidel.
Have such intentions disappeared from the minds of Posada Carriles and the bitter enemies of the Revolution who still hold seats in the U.S. Congress? Will the current U.S. administration be able to curb the impetus and ambitions of the freeloaders and re-founders of old murderous organizations in U.S. territory? Will the complex U.S. legal system ever bring an end to the impunity of Miami, now in its 51st year, and seek justice in the case of our Five Heroes who have spent more than 12 years enduring a cruel imprisonment?
Will there be an end to the reproduction of mercenaries when the threat of coups d'état is a reality within the region as tangible as weapon-trafficking, drug-trafficking and the proliferation of all kinds of gangs?
Although unjustly and inexplicably included in the list of state sponsors of terrorism, Cuba has provided ample evidence to the U.S. to show that it is fighting that scourge seriously and steadily. Despite the state terrorism that has been Washington's official policy towards us for the past five decades, there have been valuable bilateral exchanges of information on this issue, from Cuba's warning of a plan to murder President Ronald Reagan in 1984 to Posada Carriles' intentions to repeat in 1998 an attack similar to the Barbados crime, this time against airlines operating between Central America and Cuba.
At that time, June 16-17, 1998, talks were held with an FBI delegation which visited Havana and its airport facilities, received firsthand information of the documents available on the plans, evidence, and personal information on the terrorists; their exact addresses and connections in the U.S. and Central America; their modus operandi and false names used in their immigration documents; the places where they hid the boats for their actions; explosives and devices seized or the remains of those that exploded.
The U.S. delegation took back home almost ten dossiers, hundreds of pages of astonishing and irrefutable evidence, in addition to the information afforded them during many hours of exchanges with officials and experts from the Ministry of the Interior. Before they left, the FBI officer heading the mission and the chief of the U.S. Interests Section in Cuba promised to respond within two weeks on the results of their inquiries.
Twelve years later, the only response is the impunity of the culprits of those repugnant actions who walk free and even march through the streets of the United States, and the injustice of keeping in prison five young anti-terrorist fighters who contributed to the detection and timely alert of such plans. Their only "crime" is having prevented the loss of more human lives and more substantial material damage. The first result of those talks with the FBI was the arrest of our compañeros and the sudden stampede by the perpetrators of such crimes.
Cuba has described impunity and double standards as unacceptable in the fight on terrorism, and has reiterated its commitment to the fight against such actions. Our country condemns every terrorist action, method and practice in every form and expression wherever they are committed, no matter by whom or against whom, and regardless of motivation. This has just been ratified at the UN General Assembly where we have also denounced the most abominable state terrorism of which we have been victims for over half a century.
The current U.S. government has inherited a murky and dangerous history which interweaves intelligence services and unscrupulous officers; terrorist organizations and notorious criminals and mercenaries; rigged trials and investigations; corrupted detectives, prosecutors, judges, members of Congress and former government officials.
Washington has enough information to unearth the hidden truths that the courts need to do justice in the case of Posada Carriles and a number of other terrorists who walk free in the U.S.; indispensable elements to clarify and bring an end, once and for all, to their impunity and the injustice committed with our five compatriots.
The world needs the truth to prevail. It is in the hands of the current U.S. Administration, its intelligence services and legal authorities to declassify and release all the necessary documents to expose and punish the culprits, and to prevent new acts of terrorism against Cuba, Venezuela and other member countries of ALBA, which are still the targets of this scourge.
Such an endeavor cannot underestimate or ignore the revelations made by detainee Chávez Abarca concerning the plans concerning the forthcoming elections in Venezuela; the involvement of Miami terrorists in the coup d'état dealt in that fraternal nation and in Honduras that are emerging from the investigations or the new plots against democratic governments in Central America, mentioned by the detainee that give rise to questions on possible connections between members of the extreme right, the CIA and the Mafia in Florida.
Punishing Posada Carriles is as fair and necessary as releasing the five Cuban heroes, that is, if Washington wants to be consistent with its alleged commitment to the anti-terrorist struggle.
Cuba has ample reasons for defending itself and continuing the struggle for justice and against terrorism. The 3,478 dead and 2,099 compatriots physically disabled by state terrorism and the continuation of the plans of its main authors and promoters reaffirm our determination not to give in to such threats.
On September 19, 1960, Fidel Castro and Malcolm X had an historic meeting in Harlem's Hotel Theresa. Fifty years later people packed a meeting hall in the Adam Clayton Powell State Office Building across 125th Street to commemorate that meeting. Among them were Cuban Foreign Minister Bruno Rodríguez Parrilla and Cuban Ambassador to the United Nations Pedro Núñez Mosquera.
Fidel Castro meets with Malcolm X in Harlem, September 19, 1960.
What a different kind of commemoration we could have had if such important leaders as Malcolm X, Patrice Lumumba, Martin Luther King, Jr., Fred Hampton and countless others had not been assassinated. When Malcolm X met with Fidel Castro they talked about Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba of the Congo, a leader whose importance for Africa and all of us was globally recognized. Only five days earlier, Lumumba had been overthrown by Colonel Joseph Mobutu with the support of the CIA. Four months later Lumumba was executed. And in less than five years assassination took away the life of Malcolm X himself.
How did Fidel Castro escape more than 600 assassination attempts? That's no exaggeration; there really have been more than 600 attempts to kill Castro. And the answer to that question is: Because Cuban intelligence agents have risked their lives for more than 50 years to try to prevent assassinations and other terrorist actions aimed at the Cuban people. Five of these brave agents, known as the Cuban Five, have been held in U.S. prisons on phony charges for 12 years.
The FBI started trying to kill Castro in 1958 while he was still in the Sierras, before the triumph of the Revolution. The CIA began its campaign to kill him immediately after the Revolution seized power.
Even as Fidel Castro and Malcolm X were meeting in Harlem, the CIA was recruiting the Mafia to aid in assassinating Castro. Washington launched a State of Siege, including invasion, armed infiltration attacks, bombings, arson, sabotage, and bans on trade with Cuba and travel to Cuba.
The War of Terror forced Cuba to distort its economy by having to develop its Revolutionary Armed Forces and the popular militia to defend the country constantly. From this dynamic between terrorists and their targets came two opposing agencies: On the one hand, an army of terrorists based in the United States and on the other, Cuba's State Security Department or G-2, which trained intelligence agents to find out and stop plans by that army of terrorists.
Cuba has never had the option of sending its armed
forces to invade the United States in order to eliminate terrorist
groups like the ones included at the end of this article. Instead, G-2
has had to infiltrate agents into those groups to uncover their plans.
Fabián Escalante, former head of the State Security
Department, has written extensively about this "silent war against
People here in this country did not know about that decision in August 1960 to recruit organized crime for help in killing Castro until 1975 when, in the wake of the Vietnam War, the Senate Select Intelligence Committee conducted hearings that included testimony about the recruitment of Mafia assassins. That Senate Committee, by the way, did not deal only with Cuba but with CIA involvement in other assassinations, including that of Patrice Lumumba.
New York City, April 23, 1959: Fidel Castro holds up a newspaper headlining the discovery of an assassination plot against him. Earlier in the day, when asked about another reported assassination attempt, Castro referred to the utter failure of a prior assassination attempt, replying, "In Cuba, they had tanks, planes and they run away. So what are they going to do here? I sleep well and don't worry at all."
Plans for invasion at the Bay of Pigs and plans for another invasion, Operation Mongoose, were kept secret from people in this country, but G-2 found out about those plans right away.
Because Cuba was ready for the invasion, the Bay of Pigs invaders were defeated in less than 72 hours. When Cuba released more than a thousand of the invaders who were captured, they joined other Cuban émigrés to be given further training by the CIA. From 1963 through 1966, about 300 CIA agents like E. Howard Hunt worked out of a CIA station based at the University of Miami, training thousands of Cuban émigrés who became the core of the network of terrorists who continue to operate to this day.
Some Bay of Pigs veterans enrolled at Fort Benning, Georgia, for CIA training that gave them commissions as Army lieutenants. Fort Benning was not then the site of the School of the Americas, which did not move to Fort Benning from Panama until 1984; the CIA was training terrorists at many bases.
Two trainees at Fort Benning who became major terrorists were Luis Posada Carriles and Jorge Mas Canosa. Posada told New York Times' reporters that "'the CIA taught us everything -- everything.'" "'They taught us explosives, how to kill, bomb, trained us in acts of sabotage.'" In that interview, published on the front pages of the New York Times on July 12 and July 13, 1998, Posada acknowledged Jorge Mas Canosa, chair of the Cuban American National Foundation, as his financier.
The Cuban American National Foundation was created by President Ronald Reagan who anointed Mas Canosa as its leader. This organization, comprised of Cuban-American millionaires, was the most powerful and influential of all the terrorist groups, with its own military arm aimed at assassinating Fidel Castro and overthrowing the Cuban Government while at the same time engineering both the Torricelli Act and the Helms-Burton Act that tightened the trade embargo against Cuba in the 1990s.
Luis Posada became a CIA hitman, specializing in trying to kill Castro during visits abroad -- for example, in Chile in 1971. But in 1976 the Senate investigation resulted in a report that the Ford Administration knew would recommend that the CIA stop assassinating people all over the Globe. So the CIA privatized its assassination business. Posada was removed from the CIA payroll in February 1976 to become a free-lance assassin financed by wealthy Cuban-Americans, especially Jorge Mas Canosa.
Posada went on a rampage of terror, linking up with Orlando Bosch in the Commanders of United Revolutionary Organizations (CORU), devoted to terrorism against Cuba and any institutions and individuals considered friendly to Cuba. In the last six months of 1976, CORU set off 50 bombs in several countries.
Their most murderous bombing came on October 6, 1976, when Posada and Bosch masterminded two explosions that blew up a Cubana Airlines passenger plane, killing all 73 people aboard -- the first time in the Western Hemisphere that terrorists aimed to kill all passengers and crew on a civilian airliner. The next time that happened was on 9/11/2001.
In 1998, FBI agents went to Havana where Cuban officials gave them literally reams of information gathered by Cuban agents about terrorists based in the United States. But instead of arresting the terrorists, the FBI arrested Cubans who had gathered the evidence. The Cuban Five -- Gerardo Hernández, Antonio Guerrero, Ramón Labañino, Fernando González and René González -- were tried and convicted in Miami. The 11th Circuit Court of Appeals, in an opinion that unfortunately was later overturned, provided legal recognition of the fact that the city of Miami is so inflamed with passion against Cuba that it is unfit as a site for the trial of any case involving Cuba where the defendant is not in favor of overthrowing the Cuban government.
As Fidel Castro pointed out, "The most tragic aspect of all this for the U.S. people is that while [Héctor] Pesquera [the head of the FBI in Miami] and his troops were maliciously devoting all their time to the persecution, arrest and rigging of the trial of the Cubans, no less than 14 of the 19 responsible for the September 11 attacks on New York's Twin Towers and other targets were living and training exactly in the area for which Pesquera was responsible."
Fortunately G-2 agents like the Cuban Five continued their work and uncovered another plot to kill Castro in the year 2000. Most of the hundreds of attempts to kill him have gone unnoticed, but Fidel Castro made sure to call attention to this one.
After arriving in Panama City to attend an Ibero-American Summit meeting, Castro held a news conference to announce that Luis Posada and three Cuban-American co-conspirators were planning to assassinate him by bombing the auditorium at the University of Panama where he would be speaking. He even revealed where the police could find the would-be assassins. G-2 agents not only saved the life of President Castro yet again but also the lives of hundreds of people, mainly students, who packed the University of Panama auditorium to hear Castro speak.
Nevertheless Posada and his co-conspirators -- Gaspar Jiménez, Guillermo Novo, and Pedro Remón -- were charged and convicted not with attempted murder but with less serious charges, and they were pardoned in 2004 by Panamanian President Mireya Moscoso on her way out of office as she headed for her comfort zone of life in Miami. Posada's three co-conspirators immediately returned to Miami as heroes.
Posada had to be smuggled into Miami a year later because he is a naturalized citizen of Venezuela, not a U.S. citizen. He, too, was welcomed openly as a hero. Arrested on charges of violating immigration laws, Posada continues to avoid murder charges here in the United States. He had escaped from a Venezuelan prison in 1985 when he was awaiting trial for the murder of those 73 people aboard that plane back in 1976. Since Posada surfaced in Miami, Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez has repeatedly asked for his extradition to face trial on those charges of murder. The so-called Justice Department has made no response to that request.
Now Posada is charged with perjury for lying to Immigration officials, and his trial keeps being postponed. Perhaps the Justice Department hopes he dies before he tells what he knows about the CIA as his lawyer has threatened that he will do if taken to trial. Keeping him on the waiting-for-trial list provides some cover for the Justice Department's refusal to recognize requests for extradition.
Lawyers for the Cuban Five continue to try to find some avenue of achieving some kind of justice in their case, but in the United States it is perfectly legal to harbor terrorists while imprisoning counterterrorists. Luis Posada and Orlando Bosch walk free among terrorists in Miami while the Cuban Five remain in prison.
Meanwhile, Cuba must continue to defend itself against acts of terror by groups which include the following partial list.
Alpha 66: Responsible for 100s of continuing raids against Cuba and countless assassination plots against Cuban leaders, especially Fidel Castro. In the 2007 documentary, "638 Ways to Kill Castro," Miami businessman Antonio Veciana, recruited in Cuba by the CIA in 1960 and one of the founders of Alpha 66 in 1961, brags about the times he was close to killing Castro.
Comandos F4, a split-off from Alpha 66 in 1994, concentrates on raids and trains in the Everglades for invasion.
Comandos L: Founded in 1962. After a raid in which shots were fired at a tourist hotel in Cuba, the head of Comandos L, Tony Bryant, announced at a televised Miami news conference in January 1993 that they planned more raids against Cuban targets.
PUND (Democratic National Unity Party): One of its main leaders, Frank Sturgis, was one of the Watergate burglars arrested in 1972, leading to the revelations that brought down Nixon. In 1994 when Cubans captured seven PUND members after they landed in Cuba and shot to death a Cuban fisherman, PUND representatives in Miami boasted to the press about plans for more attacks.
Omega 7: Created in 1974, Omega 7 operated for years with impunity as its members murdered people who promoted dialogue with Cuba, in New Jersey (Eulalio José Negrín) and in Puerto Rico (Carlos Muñiz Varela), and carried out bombing attacks. When Cuban UN diplomat Félix García Rodríguez was shot to death in New York City in 1980, the FBI was forced to arrest some Omega 7 terrorists because of the international outcry. The head of Omega 7, Eduardo Arocena, carried out at least one biological weapon attack; Arocena testified in his murder trial that he took "some germs" to Cuba. Omega 7 was also involved in drug trafficking. Arocena is the rare Cuban-American terrorist who was actually tried, convicted and imprisoned on multiple counts of murder and drug-dealing. Campaigning in Miami in 2008, Republican presidential candidate John McCain and Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman indicated that Arocena would be pardoned if McCain became president.
CORU (Commanders of United Revolutionary Organizations) Organized by Orlando Bosch, Luis Posada, and others in 1976 when George H.W. Bush was CIA director. In addition to acts discussed in this article, Posada boasted to The New York Times that he masterminded a bombing campaign against tourist sites in Havana in 1997. Both Bosch and Posada have repeatedly tried to kill Fidel Castro.
CANF (Cuban American National Foundation) The Reagan Administration created CANF because it wanted a "respectable" Cuban-American lobby to carry out Washington's policy of trying to starve the Cuban people into submission. Jorge Mas Canosa and the other millionaires delivered money and Cuban-American votes to legislators in Congress and throughout Florida and New Jersey while at the same time receiving money from Congress through the National Endowment for Democracy. CANF was able to create both the Torricelli Act and the Helms-Burton ACT and guide them through Congress to become the law of the land. In the same year, 1962, that CANF orchestrated the Torricelli Law, it created its own unlawful paramilitary arm dedicated to killing Fidel Castro and overthrowing the Cuban Government. Although CANF maintained it was nonviolent, its support for violent acts of terrorism was well-known. Luis Posada in his book, The Paths of the Warrior, named Mas Canosa, Pepe Hernández and Feliciano Foyo as financial supporters. He told New York Times reporters about Mas Canosa's financial contributions to him. In 2006 an angry former member, multimillionaire José Antonio Llama, explicitly exposed the covert arm. He described how he and other CANF members had planned to assassinate Fidel Castro in Venezuela in 1997, a plot for which they were arrested, tried, and acquitted, thanks to the "prosecution's" strategic decision not to use a blatant confession.
Oh, yes, and then of course there are these:
U.S. Congressional Acts: Representative Torricelli (D-NJ) stated on October 20, 1993, that the purpose of the trade embargo is to "wreak havoc on that island." The trade embargo, fully established in 1962, tightened by the TORRICELLI ACT in 1992 and tightened further by the HELMS-BURTON ACT of 1996, is a government-approved campaign of terror. In 1999 Cuba filed a lawsuit charging the U.S. government with killing 3,478 Cubans, wounding and disabling more than 2,000 others, and costing Cuba $181.1 billion. The damages continue to mount.
CIA (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency): Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961; constant attacks and sabotage during the plans for another "secret" invasion, Operation Mongoose, in 1962, leading directly to the October Missile Crisis; constant covert activities, including assassinations, since 1958 against Cuba and Latin American countries friendly to Cuba.
FBI (U.S. Federal Bureau of Intelligence): According to Fabián Escalante in his book, Executive Action: 634 Ways to Kill Fidel Castro, the FBI plotted to kill Fidel Castro as early as 1958. The FBI has promoted terrorism, including deliberate failure to prosecute many known terrorists.
For more information please see janefranklin.info.
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